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Ch. 2a Objectives - Introduction to Chemistry
Terms in this set (27)
The average mass of all the isotopes of an element
A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
A subatomic particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
A subatomic particle that has a negative charge
An atom's dense central core, containing protons and neutrons.
An element is a substance whose atoms all have the same number of protons.
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
Compounds with the same formula but different structures.
Electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
Bonds created by sharing electrons with other atoms.
a covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally
a covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
A lack of electrical symmetry in a molecule. Charge differences on opposite ends of a structure.
A measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
A charged atom
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule.
An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.
Define matter. Explain the importance of chemistry to the study of life:
Its properties, how and why substances combine or separate to form other substances, and how substances interact with energy. ... Chemistry is part of everything in our lives. Every material in existence is made up of matter — even our own bodies.
Identify the four elements that are most abundant in living organisms:
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
Distinguish between electrons, neutrons and protons:
Protons are positively charged and neutrons are neutral whereas electrons are negatively charged. Protons are found in the nucleus of the atom, and they reside together with neutrons.
Explain the difference between atomic number and mass number:
Atomic number is the no. of protons of an element (which is also equals to no. of electrons present in ground state of that element).And it is the identity of an atom. Mass number is number of nucleons (i.e. number of protons and neutrons) present in it
Demonstrate how the atomic number and mass number of an atom be used to determine the number of neutrons:
Together, the number of protons and the number of neutrons determine an element's mass number: mass number = protons + neutrons. If you want to calculate how many neutrons an atom has, you can simply subtract the number of protons, or atomic number, from the mass number.
Define the term isotope and give two biological applications that use radioactive isotopes:
Each of two or more forms of the same element that contain equal numbers of protons but different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, and hence differ in relative atomic mass but not in chemical properties; in particular, a radioactive form of an element. In medicine, for example, cobalt-60 is extensively employed as a radiation source to arrest the development of cancer. Other radioactive isotopes are used as tracers for diagnostic purposes as well as in research on metabolic processes.
What is the major difference between atoms of different elements, e.g., carbon verses hydrogen:
Number of protons
Draw and discuss a biologically relevant example of each of the four main types of bonds (ionic, nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, and hydrogen bonds). Explain the biological relevance of each bond type:
Ionic - when a positively charged ion forms a bond with a negatively charged ions and one atom transfers electrons to another.
NPC - where two atoms share a pair of electrons with each other.
PC - pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms
H-Bond - attraction between polar molecules in which hydrogen is bound to a larger atom, such as oxygen or nitrogen. This is not a sharing of electrons, as in a covalent bond. Instead, this is an attraction between the positive and negative poles of charged atoms
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