70 terms

Period 2 APUSH Vocab


Terms in this set (...)

Joint-Stock Company
Companies made up of group of investors who bought the right to establish plantations from the king
Virginia Company
The first joint-stock company in the colonies; founded Jamestown; promised gold, conversion of Indian to Christianity, and passage to the Indies. Ended up going bankrupt.\
Powhatan Confederacy
A group of Indian tribes that controlled Virginia. It was led by Powhatan, Pocahontas' father, and was an agricultural group. They allowed the original English Settlers to survive.
Iroquois Confederacy
Most powerful American Indian Confederation in the Ohio Valley since 1640 that was able to remain aloof from both the British and the French, maintaining their independence. This group consisted of five Indian nations, these nations formed a defensive alliance in the fifteenth century. They traded successfully with both British and France, playing them against each other, as a direct result of this they maintained power in the Great Lakes region.
Captain John Smith (1580-1631)
English explorer, publicist, and early leader of the Jamestown Colony, the first permanent English settlement in North America. He was responsible for the survival of Jamestown. His bold leadership, military experience, and determination brought a measure of discipline to the dissolute colonists; his negotiations with the Indians prevented starvation. After his return to England, his promotional writings contributed significantly to English efforts for an American empire.
John Rolfe (1585-1622)
Arrived in Jamestown along with 150 other settlers in 1610, as part of a new charter organized by the Virginia Company. He began growing tobacco, using seeds from the West Indies to develop Virginia's first profitable export. In 1614, Rolfe married the daughter of Powhatan chieftain Pocahontas, who had been taken captive by the English settlers and converted to Christianity. The couple sailed to England with their infant son in 1616; seven months later, Pocahontas died as they prepared to travel home. Rolfe returned to Virginia, remarried and served a prominent role in the economic and political life of the colony until his death in 1622.
3 British Colonies in North America
•Royal: colonies owned by the king
•Proprietary: Land grants from the British government
• Self-Governing: The king granted a charter to a joint-stock company, and the company then set up its own government independent of the crown. However, the king could take away the charter at anytime
Protestants who wished to purify the Anglican Church by breaking away from Catholic practices and barring people from the church who were not commited
Plymouth (1621-1691)
The first permanent settlement of Europeans in New England. Plymouth was able to have peace between native tribes with in the first five years.With peace secured, the colonists in Plymouth concentrated on building a viable settlement for themselves rather than spend their time and resources guarding themselves against attack. Squanto taught them how to plant corn, which became an important crop, as well as where to fish and hunt beaver.This is the location of the first Thanksgiving. Explorer John Smith named Plymouth. However, in 1691 the colony was "eaten up" by Massachusetts.
Separatists/ Pilgrims
Separatists were English Protestants who would not accept allegiance in any form to the Church of England. One Separatist group, the Pilgrims, founded Plymouth Plantation and went on to found other settlements in Rhode Island and elsewhere in New England. Other separatist groups included the Quakers and Baptists.
Mayflower Compact (November 11, 1620)
The first written framework of government established in what is now the United States, signed by 41 people aboard the Mayflower. The contract was drafted to prevent dissent among Puritans and non-separatist Pilgrims who had landed at Plymouth a few days earlier.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
A Puritan colony given by King Charles in 1629, after the Puritans had been kicked out of England. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
John Winthrop (1588-1649)
First governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the chief figure among the Puritan founders of New England.
William Bradford (1590-1657)
A founder and longtime governor of the Plymouth Colony settlement. Bradford was among the passengers on the Mayflower and he signed the Mayflower Compact upon arriving in Massachusetts in 1620. He was Plymouth Colony's governor for more than thirty years, and helped draft its legal code and facilitated a community centered on private subsistence agriculture and religious tolerance.
Great Puritan Migration (1630-1640)
The migration of English people from England to the New World because King James opposed the growing Puritan population of England.
Virginia House of Burgees
The House of Burgesses, established in Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619. It is considered to be the first representative government in the New World. It consisted of 22 representatives from 11 districts of colonists.
Congregational Church
Founded by separatists who felt that the Church of England retained too many Roman Catholic beliefs and practices. The Pilgrims were members of the Congregational Church. The Cambridge Platform stressed morality over church belief.
George Calvert, Lord Baltimore
A Catholic nobleman that was granted control of land by the Chesapeake Bay for his loyal service to king Charles I. He established the proprietary colony of Maryland, and wanted to achieve great wealth and create a haven for his fellow Catholics, but died before he could finish his plans.
Act of Toleration (1649)
Law in Maryland that permitted all forms of Christian worship, but atheists and Jews were still executed. This was passed in 1649 by local representative assembly.
Sir William Berkeley
Royal governor of Virginia. He adopted policies that favored large planters and neglected the needs of recent settlers in the 'backcountry.' His shortcomings led to Bacon's Rebellion
Nathaniel Bacon (1647-1676)
Virginia planter and leader of Bacon's Rebellion, a rebellion with back country farmers to attack Native Americans in attempt to gain more land in 1676.
Indentured Servants
A poor person obligated to a fixed term of unpaid labor, often in exchange for a benefit such as transportation, protection, or training.
Headright System
Headrights were portions of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.
Roger Williams (1603-1683)
English master of Theology, a notable supporter of religious toleration and the separation of church and state, and an advocate for fair dealings with Native Americans. In 1644, he received a charter creating the colony of Rhode Island, named for the principal island in Narragansett Bay. He is credited for originating either the first or second Baptist church established in America.
Anne Hutchinson (1591- 1643)
A dissenter in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who caused a schism in the Puritan community. Eventually, Hutchinson's faction lost out in a power struggle for the governorship. She was expelled from the colony in 1673 and traveled southward with her followers, establishing the settlement of Portsmouth, Rhode Island in 1638.
Thomas Hooker (1586-1647)
Founded Hartford, Connecticut in 1636 when he led a large group of Boston Puritans, who were unhappy with Massachusetts authorities, into the Connecticut River Valley.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1693)
First written constitution in American history written by Hartford, Connecticut settlers. It established a representative government consisting of a legislature elected by popular vote and governor chosen by legislature.
Halfway Covenant
Applied to members of Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn't been saved themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs, but not all.
Salem Witch Trials
A series of trials that occurred in colonial Massachusetts between 1692 and 1693. Two hundred people were accused of practicing witch craft and twenty were executed.
New England Confederation (1643-1654)
Alliance of the English colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven. The purpose was to unite the Puritan colonies against the Native Americans. It also served as a forum for resolving inter-colonial disputes
Metacom/ King Phillip's War (1675-1676)
The last major effort by the Native Americans of southern New England to drive out the English settlers. Tensions were created when trade partnerships collapsed, along with colonies expanding aggressive. King Philip (Cheif Metacom) led a bloody uprising of Wampanoag, Nipmuck, Pocumtuck and Narragansett tribes. The fighting lasted fourteen months and destroyed twelve frontier towns, ending shortly after Metacom was captured and beheaded. Some of his supporters escaped to Canada, while others who surrendered were sold into slavery.
Pequot War
An allied Puritan and Mohegan force under English Captain John Mason attacks a Pequot village in Connecticut, burning or massacring roughly 500 Indian women, men, and children. By the spring of 1637, 13 English colonists and traders had been killed by the Pequot, and Massachusetts Bay Governor John Endecott organized a large military force to punish the Indians. On April 23, 200 Pequot warriors responded defiantly to the colonial mobilization by attacking a Connecticut settlement, killing six men and three women and taking two girls away.On May 26, 1637 Puritans and their Indian allies slaughtered all but a handful of people. On June 5, Captain Mason attacked another Pequot village, being victorious. On July 28, a third attack and massacre occurred and the war ended and most of the surviving Pequot were sold into slavery.
English Restoration (1660)
When Charles II, a constitutional monarchy, returned to the throne of England. This lead to greater royal involvement and intensity in colonialism.
Quakers/ William Penn
Received a charter from Charles II and land grant to start a new colony in North America. He founded Pennsylvania Colony, and later died in prison because of colonist's suspicion toward his closeness towards James II. Created representative assembly and religious toleration in Pennsylvania.
Frame of Government (1682-1683)
Document provided to Pennsylvania colony by William Penn which guaranteed a representative assembly elected by landowners
James Oglethorpe (1696-1785)
Founder of Georgia, and was a forward-thinking visionary who demonstrated great skill as a social reformer and military leader. His plan was to establish the colony of Georgia. It was through his work in England in 1732 that the British government authorized the establishment of its first new colony in North America in more than five decades. Later that year he led the expedition of colonists in Savannah in 1733. Oglethorpe spent most of the next decade in Georgia, where he directed the economic and political development of the new colony, defended it militarily, and continued to generate support and recruit settlers in England and other parts of Europe.
Practiced by Great Britain. The idea that colonies were there to benefit the mother country. All raw materials from the colonies had to go to Britain; any exported goods needed to stop off in Britain first, which made Britain middle men = more profit.
Trade and Navigation Acts (1660-1696)
1. Only British ships could transport imported and exported goods from the colonies.
2. The only people who were allowed to trade with the colonies had to be British citizens.
3. Commodities such as sugar, tobacco, and cotton wool which were produced in the colonies could be exported only to British ports.
Dominion of New England
Main purpose was to outline and enforce Navigation Laws to protect mercantilist system in the colonies; created by Lords of Trade to unite all colonies after MBC's charter was revoked; prohibited meetings, revoked land titles, prevented smuggling, taxed heavily
Sir Edmund Andros
Appointed by James II to oversee the enforcement of the Dominion of New England; despised by colonists for autocracy and loyalty for Anglican church
Glorious Revolution
England's bloodless revolution in which James II was dethroned and replaced by William and Mary; Andros was subsequently arrested and shipped to England; Dominion and Navigation Laws were no longer enforced
Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800's. Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa.
Middle Passage
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies (the Caribbean) to become slaves. This was a segment of the Triangular Trade.
Great Awakening (1739-1744)
An outbreak of religious fever that swept through the colonies after Puritanism's decline. The decline upset the people religiously. However, the end result was one of the first events that unified the colonies.
Jonathan Edwards (Oct.5, 1703 - March 22, 1758)
Christian preacher and theologian. Elected president of the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University) in early 1758. Created a since of patriotism.
George Whitefield (1714-1770)
Anglican minister that contributed to the Great Awakening.
new england colonies
English colonies that became the states of Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine.
Chesapeake colonies (Southern Colonies)
included Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia. Had a cash crop agriculture, slavery was important, mostly illiterate, Protestant, very isolated, high death rates and unstable families.
North Carolina 1653
Virginians charter issued by Charles II, agricultural and riches
indentured servant
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
Beaver Wars
Wars that resulted from furious trading and hunting of Beaver pelts by the Dutch, the French, and the New Netherlands. The Overhunting of Beavers sent prices so high in 1742 that the Dutch armed the Iroquois and what resulted was bloody battles against Pro-French tribes.
Chickasaw Wars
example of French relations with the Native Americans; War fought in response to the tribe allying with the British and harboring Natchez tribesmen
Wool Act
ll wool produced in the colonies could only be exported to Britain, protected Britain at colonies' expense
Molasses Act
British legislation which had taxed all molasses, rum, and sugar which the colonies imported from countries other than Britain and her colonies. The act angered the New England colonies, which imported a lot of molasses from the Caribbean as part of the Triangular Trade. The British had difficulty enforcing the tax; most colonial merchants did not pay it.
Catawba nation
:A group of the remains of several different Indian tribes that joined together in the late 1700's. The Catawba Nation was in the Southern Piedmont region. Forced migration made the Indians join in this group
Huron Confederacy
A group of Indians similar to the Iroquois. French joined them in the fight against the Iroquois. Iroquois tried to get rid of NH. Development of firearms-French resisted selling their guns to them (their allies) so now the Iroquois had an advantage. So, Iroquois devastated the them. Most were incorporated into their own population. Increased Iroquois power, and Iroquois became feared throughout Europe. Dutch formed an alliance with the Iroquois, which kept other Indians from attacking them.
King Phillips War
Between Wampanoag Indians, led by metacomet (settlers called him king) and the New England settlers over continuous raids the settlers evoked on 3 indians tribes. Wamp. fought back destroying 13 whole settlements and 6 half settlements. Provoked a royal investigation
Idea that government should be based on consent of the people.
Great Awakening ...
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established
navigation acts
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
Dominion of New England 1686
The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
An economic system to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
Canadians of mixed French and Indian parentage.
A person of mixed African and European ancestry
Casta System
Was a social hierarchy based on how European you were. Wealth, education, and physical appearance helped determine how an individual might be viewed. peninsulares, creoles, indios, negroes. mestizo and mulatt
John Locke
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
Maryland Toleration Act of 1649
Act that was passed in Maryland that guaranteed toleration to all Christians, regardless of sect but not to those who did not believe in the divinity of Jesus. Though it did not sanction much tolerance, the act was the first seed that would sprout into the first amendment, granting religious freedom to all.
Atlantic World
A pattern of exchange between Western Europe, Western Africa, North and South America, and the Caribbean. Made it easier to get goods from foreign places.
Praying Town
Villages where New England Indians who converted to Christianity were gathered
Pueblo Revolt 1680
revolt of indigenous laborers led by shaman named Pope'. killed colonists and priests and got Spanish out of modern-day New Mexico for 12 years