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Ch. 2c Objectives - Biological Molecules
Terms in this set (48)
the study of all chemicals containing carbon
An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.
the portion of a molecule that is active in a chemical reaction and that determines the properties of many organic compounds
the carboxyl group is an organic, functional group consisting of a carbon atom that's double-bonded to an oxygen atom and singly bonded to a hydroxyl group
A simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
A single sugar molecule such as glucose or fructose, the simplest type of sugar.
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
A polymer containing a small number of monosaccharides.
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms
A structural polysaccharide, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods.
Energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
the main constituents of natural fats and oils, and high concentrations in the blood indicate an elevated risk of stroke
an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils
A lipid made from fatty acids that have no double bonds between carbon atoms
A lipid made from fatty acids that have at least one double bond between carbon atoms.
a viscous liquid derived from petroleum, especially for use as a fuel or lubricant.
lipid molecule with four fused carbon rings
A lipid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
An unsaturated fat, formed artificially during hydrogenation of oils, containing one or more trans double bonds.
An organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids and that is a principal component of all cells
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
Building blocks of protein
R Side Chain
(In amino acids) varies, changes function, gives personality, dictates way it folds, which dictates how it functions. Ionized - charged, can be positive or negative
The first level of protein structure; the specific sequence of amino acids making up a polypeptide chain.
The second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain.
The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.
The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.
bonding of molecules of fat and protein
A protein with one or more carbohydrates covalently attached to it.
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
a complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain.
monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
Explain why carbon is such an important part of the structure of organic compounds:
Carbon is a such a versatile element because it can form four covalent bonds.
Distinguish between monomers and polymers. Dehydration vs Hydrolysis:
A monomer is a molecule that can be reacted together with other monomer molecules to form a larger polymer chain.
Dehydration: the process of joining two molecules, or compounds, together following the removal of water. ... During a condensation reaction, two molecules are condensed and water is lost to form a large molecule
Hydrolysis: a chemical reaction in which water is used to break down the bonds of a particular substance. ...
Name and recognize the basic structure of a few major functional groups found in organic molecules (amino, carboxyl, hydroxyl). Identify the chemical properties associated with each functional group:
Amino - charged, accepts H+ to form NH3, since they remove H+, considered basic.
Carboxyl - charged, ionized to release H+ ions, considered acidic
Hydroxyl - Polar
For each of the four major groups of biomolecules:
a. identify the basic structural features
b. polymer name (if applicable)
c. monomer name (if applicable)
d. examples and their related functions
Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, Ex. sugars, starch, cellulose
Proteins: Amino acids, Ex. Enzymes, structural components
Nucleic acids: Nucleotides, Ex. DNA & RNA
Lipids: Fatty acids and glycerol Ex. fats, steroids & cholesterol
Differentiate between monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides by describe their structures and functions. Explain why polysaccharides: glycogen, starch, chitin and cellulose have different properties:
Cellulose has more hydrogen bonds between adjacent glucose units, both within a chain and between adjacent chains, making it a tougher fiber than glycogen or starch.
Describe the structure and biological importance of fats, phospholipids and steroids. Identify the type of bond that makes most lipids hydrophobic:
They act as chemical messengers, serve as valuable energy sources, provide insulation, and are the main components of membranes. non polar
Compare and contrast a saturated fatty acid and an unsaturated fatty acid. Explain how saturation influences the density of a triglyceride or phospholipid:
saturated fatty acids are where all the carbon atoms have single bonds between them making the lipid saturated as no more hydrogens can be added. ... On the other hand, unsaturated fatty acids are where there is a double bond between one or more of the carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon chain
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