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41 terms

Sociology Chapter 9

STUDY
PLAY
Power
Definition by max weber - The ability to exercise one's will over another, even it they resist
Three types of power sources
Force, Influence, Authority
Force
The actual or threatened use of coercion to impose one's will on others
Influence
Refers to the exercise of power through a process of persuasion
Authority
Institutionalized power that is recognized by the people over whom it is exercised
Max Weber's Classification system for authority
Three types of authority - traditional, rational-legal, charismatic
Traditional authority
Legitimate power conferred by custom and accepted practice. Ex. King is accepted as ruler of a nation simply by virtue of inheriting the crown
Rational-Legal Authority
Involves formally agreed-upon and accepted rules, principles and procedures of conduct that are established in order to accomplish goals in the most efficient manner. EX. US Constitution grants president and congress authority
Charismatic Authority
Power made legitimate by a leader's exceptional personal or emotional appeal to his or her followers. EX. Martin Luther King, Malcolm X
Industrial Society
A society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services
Economic System
Refers to the social institution through which goods and services are produced distributed and consumed
Two types of economic systems
Capitalism and Socialism
Capitalism
An economic system in which the means of production are held largely in private hands and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits
Laissez-faire
Term coined by Adam Smith. A form of capitalism (let them do as they choose). People could compete freely, with minimal government intervention in the economy.
Monopoly
Exists when a single business firm controls the market.
View of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Capitalism forced large numbers of people to exchange their labor for low wages. They argued that the owners of industry profit from the labor of workers primarily by paying workers less than the value of the goods produced
Socialism
The means of production and distribution in a society are collectively rather than privately owned.
Communism
Economic System under which all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made on the basis o people's ability to produce
Mixed Economy
Features elements of more than one economic system. Usually involves removing some goods and services from the competitive free market and providing them for all and the competitive free market. Combines elements of socialism and captialism
Informal Economy
Transfers of money, goods, or services take place by are not reported to the government. EX bartering in which people trade for goods and services
Deindustrialization
The systematic, widespread withdrawal of investment in basic aspects of productivity, such as factories and plants
Downsizing
Involves reducing the size of a company's workforce. The goal is to increase efficiency and reduce costs in the face of growing worldwide competition
Offshoring
Transfer work to foreign contractors
Harold Lasswell
Created definition of "politics"
Politics
"who gets what, when and how" - Lasswell
Political system
The social institution that is founded on a recognized set of procedures for implementing and achieving society's goals, such as the allocation of valued resources
Monarchy
Form of government headed by a single member of a royal family, usually a queen or king, or some other hereditary ruler
Oligarchy
A form of government in which a few individuals rule
Dictatorship
A government in which one person has nearly total power to make and enforce laws. They rule primarily through the use of coercion, which includes imprisonment, torture and executions.
Totalitarianism
Involves virtually complete government control and surveillance over all aspects of a society's social and political life
Democracy
Government by the people.
Representative Democracy
A form of government in which certain individuals are selected to speak for the people
Elite Model
A view of society as being ruled by a small group of individuals who share a common set of political and economic interests. This view was held by Karl Marx of a Representative Democracy
Power Elite
Term coined by C Wright Mills. A small group of military, industrial, and government leaders who control the fate of the United States
G William Dornhoff
Agreed with C Wright Mills Power Elite theory. Stressed the role played by elites from within networks of organizations including the corporate community: policy formation organizations such as think tanks, chambers of commerce, and labor unions; and he social upper class
Pluralist Model
As opposed to elite models, in this model many competing groups within the community have access to the government so that no single group is dominant. They make use of intensive case studies or community studies based on observation research
Robert Dahl
supported the pluralist model. found that, although the number of people involved in any important decision was small, community power was nonetheless diffuse
Dianne Pinderhughes
Criticized the pluralist model for failing to account for the exclusion of African Americans from the political process
War
Conflict between organizations that possess trained combat forces equipped with deadly weopons
Terrorism
The use or threat of violence against random or symbolic targets in pursuit of political aims
Peace
The absence of war, or more broadly, a proactive effort to develop cooperative relations among nations