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A&P 2 Chapter 18 Blood
Terms in this set (58)
Connective tissue made of plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.
Matrix of blood (Clear, Light yellow)
percentage of blood volume occupied by red blood cells
remaining fluid when blood clots and the solids are removed
>identical to plasma EXCEPT for the absence of fibrinogen
smallest and most abundant plasma protein; CONTRIBUTE TO VISCOSITY AND OSMOLARITY
red blood cells
is a large molecule made up of proteins and iron. It consists of four folded chains of a protein called globin,
formation of blood
blood formation in the bone marrow
blood formation in the lymphatic organs
Converts Fe3+ to Fe2+
iron storage protein
iron transport protein
released by the kidneys in response to low oxygen levels. Triggers new red blood cell formation.
a substance produced by the breakdown of red blood cells
Low oxygen saturation of the body, not enough oxygen in the blood
increased number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood
lack of a normal number of red blood cells
sickle cell anemia
a genetic disorder that causes abnormal hemoglobin, resulting in some red blood cells assuming an abnormal sickle shape
autoimmune attack of stomach tissue leads to inadequate vitamin B12 absorption
Complex molecules on surface of cell membrane
that activate an immune response
antigens on the surface of the RBC that is the basis for blood typing
Proteins that attach to antigens, keeping them from harming the body
cancer of white blood cells
Cell fragments from special cell in bone marrow, Clotting
white blood cells
A group of leukocytes containing granules in their cytoplasm; neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils.
Most abundant white blood cell., The most abundant type of white blood cell. Phagocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days.
increased numbers in parasitic infections, collagen diseases, allergies, diseases of spleen and CNS
-Phagocytosis of antigen antibody complexes,
allergens, and inflammatory chemicals Release enzymes to destroy large parasites
secrete histamine and heparin
lymphocytes and monocytes (without granules)
increased numbers in diverse infections and immune responses
-Destroy cells (cancer, foreign, and virally infected
-"Present" antigens to activate other immune cells
-Coordinate actions of other immune cells
-Secrete antibodies and provide immune memory
increased numbers in viral infections and inflammation
-Leave bloodstream and transform into macrophages
Phagocytize pathogens and debris
"Present" antigens to activate other immune cells
-presenting cells (APCs)
deficiency of white blood cells
factors found in blood begin cascade (platelet degranulation)
factors released by damaged tissues begin cascade
enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin during coagulation
plasma protein; converted to thrombin in the clotting process
an insoluble protein formed from fibrinogen during the clotting of blood. It forms a fibrous mesh that impedes the flow of blood.
An X-linked recessive disorder in which blood fails to clot properly, leading to excessive bleeding if injured.
abnormal condition of a blood clot
hemolytic disease in the newborn (HDN) caused by a blood group (Rh factor) incompatibility between the mother and the fetus
Functions of the Blood
transportation (Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide), regulation (Fluid and Ph and Temp), protection (microorganisms, infections, inflammation)
major plasma proteins
albumin, globulin, fibrinogen
Substances found in plasma
Water, Proteins, nutrients, and electrolytes
(Osmolarity) Important in regulating the movement of water into or
out of the blood
If too high, blood absorbs too much water, increasing
the blood pressure
If too low, too much water stays in tissue, blood
pressure drops, and edema occurs
How does blood osmolarity affect blood pressure?
in the yolk sack, then in the liver, and lastly in the bone marrow.
Where does Hematopoesis occur?
Phases of Erythropoiesis
1. Ribosome synthesis
2. Hemoglobin accumulation
3. ejection from the nucleus and fromation of reticulocytes
4. reticulocytes then become mature erythrocytes
Factors that regulate erythropoesis
Increase in exercise
Loss of lung tissue in emphysema
Inadequate erythropoiesis or hemoglobin synthesis
from RBC destruction
What are the different causes of Anemia
The iron contained in the heme portion of hemoglobin may be stored in the liver or spleen, primarily in the form of ferritin or hemosiderin, or carried through the bloodstream by transferrin to the red bone marrow for recycling into new erythrocytes
How are red blood cells recycled?
Steps of Hemostasis
1. vascular spasm
2. platelet plug formation
steps of coagulation
Conversion of plasma protein fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin threads to form framework of clot
Factors Limiting Clot Growth or Formation
two homeostatic mechanisms prevent clots from becoming large
-swift removal and dilution of clotting factors
-inhibition of activated clotting factors
Defined the ABO and Rh blood types?
Immune response is triggered as antibodies destroy the unfamiliar antigens in the blood.
What will happen when someone recieves mismatched blood in a transfusion?
If the woman is Rh negative and not sensitized, she is given Rh immune globulin to prevent what?
1. The potential for hemorrhage
3. Antibody formation
4. Tubal pregnancy
Why must pregnant women be aware of the Rh factor during their second pregnancy?
Platelets do not normally adhere to endothelium
-Heparin (from basophils and mast cells) interferes with
formation of prothrombin activator
-Antithrombin (from liver) deactivates thrombin before
it can act on fibrinogen
How is inappropriate clotting stopped?
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