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Essential Elements Book 2 pp. 18 - 44
Terms in this set (18)
This French composer (1838-1875) entered the Paris Conservatory to study music when he was only ten years old. There he won many awards for voice, piano, organ, and composition. His best known composition is the opera Carmen, which was first performed in 1875. Carmen tells the story of a band of Gypsies, soldiers, smugglers, and outlaws. Originally criticized for its realism on stage, it was soon hailed as the most popular French opera ever written.
John Philip Sousa
This American composer (1854-1932) was best known for his brilliant band marches. He wrote 136 marches, including The Stars and Stripes Forever, which was declared the official march of the United States of America in 1987.
6/8 Time Signature
6 beats per measure, the eighth note gets one beat. This time signature is usually played with a slight emphasis on the 1st and 4th beats of each measure. This divides the measure into 2 groups of 3 beats each. In faster music, these two primary beats will make the music feel like it's counted "in 2."
Notes which sound the same but have different letter names.
The smallest distance between two notes.
A scale made up of consecutive half-steps.
A Cuban dance and song form in slow 2/4 meter. It is named after the city of Havana, the capital of Cuba. Made popular in the New World in the early 19th Century, it was later carried over to Spain. There the rhythms of this were incorporated into many styles of Latin music. One of the most famous Habaneras is heard in Bizet's Carmen, written in 1875.
This is a group of 3 notes played in the space of 2. In 2/4, 3/4 or 4/4 time, an eighth note version of this is spread evenly across one beat.
D.S. al Fine
Play until you see the D.S. al Fine. Then go back to the sign and play until the word Fine. D.S. is the abbreviation for Dal Degno, or "from the sign," and Fine means "the end."
A dance in moderate 3/4 time which developed around 1800 from the Landler, an Austrian peasant dance
Johann Strauss, Jr.
This Austrian composer (1825-1899) composed over 400 waltzes. These include such famous pieces as The Blue Danube, Tales From the Vienna Woods and Emperor Waltz.
Played in a smooth, connected style.
Repeat the previous measure once for each of these signs.
A scale with half-steps between notes 3-4 and between 7-8. (WWHWWWH)
Natural Minor Scale
A scale with half-steps between notes 2-3 and 5-6. (WHWWHWW)
Harmonic Minor Scale
A minor scale which adds an accidental to raise the 7th note by a half step. (WHWWHWH)
Theme and Variation
A technique used by composers and arrangers to create interesting musical ideas that are "varied" from an established melody, or "theme."
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