A genetically determined, energy efficient metabolism, requiring few calories for daily activities. In an environment of scarce food, such as found in prehistoric times, a thrifty metabolism allowed the storage of seasonally abundant food as body fat for use in times of food shortage. In a modern environment with a large surplus of calories, a thrifty metabolism contributes to the development of obesity.
Body processes that create more complex chemical compounds for energy storage or for the synthesis of tissue.
Body processes that break down complex chemical compounds for energy release or for tissue breakdown.
High energy balance chemical compound used in the body to transfer energy from nutrients to various life processes.
Body processes involving involuntary activities only, such as breathing, heartbeat, and chemical reactions.
Thermic Effect of Food
Energy expended in digesting, absorbing, transporting, storing, metabolizing, and otherwise handling food. Amounts to about 10 percent of ingested calories.
Body Mass Index
A height-weight relationship used to assess obesity. Equal to weight in kilograms over height in meters squared.
The number of cases of a condition in a given population or the proportion of the population suffering from that condition.
The increase in risk seen in a high risk group over that seen in the lowest risk group.
Hip to Waist ratio
a measure used to define android obesity. A value of greater than 1.1:1 is considered to indicate such.
A cessation of normal menstruation caused by inadequate estrogen levels resulting from excessively low body fat. Causes bone mineral loss leading to weakened bones.
Female Athlete Triad
The combination of low bone density, amenorrhea, and eating disorder sometimes seen in female athletes with very little body fat.