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US History Midterm Review 2020
Terms in this set (32)
Where did colonists settle in the "New World"?
Near water: rivers, coastlines
Having colonies (which provide raw materials) to benefit the mother country
What rights did Jefferson state we were entitled to in the Declaration of Independence?
Natural Rights: life, liberty and pursuit of happiness
Why were the Articles of Confederation created to be a weak central government?
Fear of a strong central government who would abuse our rights like Britain
What compromises were involved in the creation of the Constitution?
Great Compromise- created a bicameral legislature
Three Fifths Compromise- each slave equaled 3/5 of a person for representation in Congress
Which specific part of the government is responsible for impeachment?
The House of Representatives uses a majority vote to impeach the president
What is the purpose of amendments?
To make a change in the constitution
What is federalism?
Division of power between the state and national government.
What does a candidate need to do according to the Constitution to be elected president?
Candidates need a majority vote in the Electoral College
How do the terms reserved, concurrent, and delegated apply to federalism?
Reserved- powers only the states have
Concurrent- powers shared between the state and federal government
Delegated- powers only the national government has
What did the Anti-Federalists want in order to ratify the Constitution?
Bill of Rights
What precedents did Washington set as president?
2 term presidency, cabinet, neutrality
What was President Washington's rationale for remaining neutral during his presidency?
America was a new nation with a small military, we should not involve ourselves in foreign affairs
What did Alexander Hamilton's financial plan create?
The National Bank to provide financial security for the United States
Why did Jefferson want to purchase the Louisiana Territory from France?
US would gain access to the Mississippi River, the Port of New Orleans, and double the size of the nation
Why was the creation of the Bank of the United States and the purchase of the Louisiana Territory controversial?
Both required a loose interpretation of the Constitution
What is the significance of Marbury vs. Madison?
Established the principle of judicial review (the ability of the Supreme Court to determine the constitutionality of laws)
What was the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine?
To prevent European countries from establishing new colonies in Latin America
What was the Spoils System?
Andrew Jackson's practice of rewarding his political backers
What was President Andrew Jackson's policy towards Native Americans?
Jackson's policies led to the Trail of Tears and the removal of Native Americans west of the Mississippi River
What was Manifest Destiny?
The idea that America had a right to expand across the continent
Define: Missouri Compromise
Missouri is a slave state, Maine is not
Missouri draws the slavery line where slavery could exist in the future (goal: to maintain equal number of free and slave states for Congressional representation)
What led to the Compromise of 1850?
Resulted from the Mexican-American War - California came in as a free state, popular sovereignty, fugitive slave act
What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
It allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders.
What did Dred Scott v. Sanford rule?
Slaves were considered property, African Americans were not considered citizens, Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional
What was the immediate reason why the South decided to secede from the Union?
The election of Abraham Lincoln
How did Lincoln's increase his "war powers" during the Civil War?
Lincoln suspended the writs of habeas corpus (put people in jail without due process)
What were the three Reconstruction amendments and what rights did they grant?
13th- ended slavery
15th- suffrage for all men
What were the Black Codes following the Civil War?
Restrictions on the rights of former slaves
What were the three plans for Reconstruction?
Lincoln and Johnson- lenient treatment of the south
Radical Republicans- harsh treatment of the south, military occupation
What actions did the South take to restrict voting rights of freed slaves?
Literacy Tests, Poll Taxes, Grandfather Clause
What were the Jim Crow Laws?
They were laws that enforced the strict separation of the races.
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