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29 terms

Izzy's AP Psych Ch 10

STUDY
PLAY
cognition
The mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
concept
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
prototype
A mental image or best example of a category - matching new items to the prototype provided a quick and easy method for including items in a category
algorithm
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem
heuristic
A simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently
insight
A sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
confirmation bias
A tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions
fixation
The inability to see a problem from a new perspective
mental set
A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially a way that has been successful in the past
functional fixedness
The tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
representative heuristic
Judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes
availability heuristic
Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory
overconfidence
The tendency to be more confident than correct - to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
framing
The way an issue is posed
belief bias
The tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
belief perserverence
Clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
artificial intelligence
The science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes
computer neural networks
Computer circuits that mimic the brain's interconnected neural cells
language
Our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
phoneme
In a spoken language, the smallest distictive sound unit
morpheme
In a language, the smallest unit that carries a meaning (may be a word or part of a word)
grammar
In a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
semantics
The set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language
syntax
The rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
babbling stage
Beginning at 3 to 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
one-word stage
The stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words
two-word stage
Beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements
telegraphic speech
Early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram, using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting "auxiliary" words
linguistic determination
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think