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31 terms

Science Test on Volcanoes

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Magma
Molten rock, underground.
Volcano
A weak spot in the crust where magma can escape.
Lava
Molten rock, above ground
Ring of Fire
A major volcanic belt, formed by the many volcanoes that rim the pacific ocean.
Pahoehoe
Fast moving, hot lava, low viscosity. Looks like a solid mass of rope-like coils.
Aa
Cooler, slower-moving lava, high viscosity. Rough, jagged surface.
Island Arc
A string of islands formed by the volcanoes along a deep-ocean trench.
Hot Spot
Volcano where magma from the mantle melts through the crust.
Viscosity
A liquids resistance to flowing.
Silica
A material found in magma. Causes explosive eruptions.
Magma Chamber
The pocket beneath a volcano where magma collects.
Pipe
A long tube through which magma moves from the magma chamber to the earth's surface.
Vent
Same as pipe.
Lava Flow
The area covered by lava as it pours out of a volcano's vent.
Crater
The top of a volcano.
Pyroclastic Flow
Expulsion of ash, cinders, bombs, gasses
Dormant
A volcano that is not active, but isn't dead yet
Extinct
The volcano will never erupt again supposedly
Shield Volcano
Wide, gently sloping, made of lava layers, quiet eruptions
Composite Volcano
Steep, alternates between quiet and explosive eruptions, made of lava and pyroclastic flow
Cinder Cone Volcano
Steep, explosive eruptions, made out of pyroclastic flow
Caldera
The large hole at the top of a volcano formed when the roof the magma chamber collapses.
Volcanic Neck
A deposit of hardened magma in a volcano's pipe.
Dike
Vertical pathways of magma
Sill
Horizontal pathways of magma
Batholith
A mass of rock formed when a large body of magma cools inside the crust.
Geyser
A fountain of water and steam that builds up pressure underground and erupts at regular intervals.
Cinders
Small rocks
Bombs
Huge rocks
Hot Springs
When there is a crack in the crust underwater, so that the water is heated
Mud Pots
Boiling pot of mud