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Topic 2: Principles of Microscopy
Terms in this set (27)
The use of light or electrons to magnify small objects.
The process of enlarging an object in appearance only.
Objective lens x ocular lens
Resolution (resolving power)
The ability of the lenses to distinguish two points as distinct and separate.
Numerical aperture (NA)
The ability of the lens to gather light.
Dark objects are visible against a bright background. Uses staining (pigmentation).
Light objects are visible against a dark background. No staining required.
Uses ultra-violet (UV) light to illuminate specimen.
Fluorescence-antibody (FA) technique
Also known as immunofluorescence. Important for rapid detection of pathogens in clinical specimens. Ex. FTA-ABS test for syphilis.
Electron microscopy (EM)
Uses electrons instead of light. Shorter wavelength gives greater resolution.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
Specimens thinly sectioned, stained with metallic stains, put onto grid. 2D view, good for viewing internal structures of cells, viruses. BUT, cannot visualize live microorganisms (involves staining).
Scanning electron microscopy
Specimen coated with metal. 3D view, good for viewing surface structures of cells, viruses. BUT, cannot visualize live microorganisms (involves staining).
Chromophore is the (+) ion, used to directly stain bacterial cells. Ex. crystal violet, methylene blue, malachite green.
Chromophore is the (-) ion, used to stain background around cells. Ex. in negative staining.
One dye. Ex. crystal violet, methylene blue, safranin.
A substance added to a staining solution to make it stain more intensely.
Uses two different colored dyes (+ mordant) that react differently with different types of bacteria. Ex. gram stain and acid-fast stain.
Includes negative staining, endospore staining, flagella staining.
Long-chained, branched fatty acid characteristic of members of the genus Mycobacterium.
Polysaccharide covering on some microbes, important for virulence.
Acidic stain that stains background and leaves cells unstained. Used in negative staining for capsules.
Special resistant, dormant structure formed inside some bacteria. Have enhanced survival against heat, drying and chemicals.
Flagella (sing. flagellum)
Structures used for cellular motility.
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