Bio 12 - Digestive System
Terms in this set (121)
5 or 6 carbon rings of sugar
Storage form of sugar (glucose) in plants and animals
Source of energy once glucose is freed
Structural support in plants
Simple sugar (monomers)
5 carbon sugar, structural component of nucleic acids (eg. ribose)
6 carbon sugar, most common, used for energy and structure (eg. glucose, fructose, and galactose)
2 monosaccharides combined by dehydration synthesis
eg. sucrose, maltose, lactose
transport form of sugars for shipping within the body
more than 2 monosaccharides combined by dehydration synthesis
Storage for glucose in plants, covalent bonding (dehydration synthesis), few side branches
Storage for glucose in animals, stored in liver and muscle cells, covalent bonding (dehydration synthesis), highly branched
Structural support for plants, oxygen linkage between glucose units in alternating pattern, straight chain. Strong and undigestable for humans
Mainly hydrocarbons. Do not contain polar groups, and are not water soluble. Hydrophobic.
Monomers made from glycerol and fatty acids. Polymers include triglycerides (neutral fats) and phospholipid. Used to make cholesterol and steroid hormones.
Triglyceride (neutral fat)
Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids =
Phosphate + Glycerol + 2 Fatty Acids =
Energy (secondary source)
Organ protection (cushion)
Insulate against heat loss
Membrane component (structural)
Soap - an emulsifier, breaks up fats
Triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids,
aka neutral fats, not charged, non-polar
long time energy storage - fat
insulator under skin, cushion to protect organs
amphiphatic (contains both hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts)
used to make bi-layer of membrane
allows for the flow of selected molecules in and out of the cell
Have carbohydrates attached and provide cell recognition
4 fused rings, include: cholesterol, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
keeps membrane fluid @ low temperatures, have lipoproteins attached in membrane to help transfer lipids
animal, solid, 'fats'
hold the maximum amount of H
all single bonds between C's
plants, liquid, 'oils'
has at least one double bond between C's
holds 2 less H for each double bond
Functions: structural, enzymes, membrane transport channels
Functions: antigens for cell recognition, antibodies for immunology, muscle fibers, hemoglobin to carry oxygen or carbon dioxide
Any force that disrupts the bonds and/or interactions
irreversible changes in shape due to extremes in heat and/or pH
change in shape = loss of function
ionic, polar, or non-polar,
20 different groups (used to make proteins)
__________ uses the H from the amino group, and the OH from the carboxyl group to form a peptide bond
linear sequence of amino acids, joined by peptide bonds
determined by DNA (mRNA)
Alpha-helix or beta-pleated sheet, each amino acid of a chain interacts with neighbors, stabilized by H-bonds
final 3D shape (globular proteins)
maintained by ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonding between R-groups
hydrophobic portions tend to fold together so that they are together on the inside of the structure
2 or more polypeptides linked together to form a single protein (ie. hemoglobin has 4 subunits)
Functions: stores genetic information, passes information to new cells, DNA codes for amino acid sequence in proteins, and RNA conveys instructions from DNA
Deoxyribose, phosphate, nitrogenous base, adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine
larger, double ring structures in DNA nucleotide
adenine and guanine
smaller, single ring structures in DNA nucleotide
cytosine and thymine
single-stranded, linear structure.
adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil
found in nucleus and cytoplasm
found in nucleus and mitochondria
__________ are the basic units of biological molecules
__________ are complex macromolecules that consist of two or more monomers
Dehydration synthesis (the H on one monomer joins with the OH group on another monomer, water is released)
Monomer --> Polymer
Hydrolysis (water breaks the bond making a polymer and releases a monomer)
Polymer --> Monomer
sum of all chemical reactions in a cell
= anabolism + catabolism
substrates building together to form a single product
break down of a single substrate into two smaller products
the amount of energy required before a reaction will occur (enzymes can lower it)
Globular protein molecule that acts as a catalyst
Increases the reaction rate without being changed by the reaction.
Has one or more invaginations (infoldings) on the surface called the active site
Allows reactions to occur at body temperature (37degrees) in a reasonable amount of time
The reactants of the reaction, the substance that will be changed.
Non-protein molecule that helps the enzyme (often a vitamin is part of it) (ie. enables it to fit in the active site)
Lock and Key Model
Substrate is a lock, and the enzyme is the key (each enzyme has an active site which is highly specific for a substrate to bind to it)
Induced Fit Model
The active site undergoes a slight alteration in shape to optimally fit the substrate and facilitate the reaction
E + S = ______________ and when it separates again, we have a product
Entrance to the digestive tract with teeth and tongue
Where teeth masticate food and begin mechanical digestion
Where the salivary glands release amylase that break down starch to maltose
Muscle that moved food around mouth for chewing and moves food to the back of mouth for swallowing
The structure that secretes saliva containing water, mucous, and salivary amylase by way of ducts
Common passage for air or food at back of throat
Transfers food from mouth to esophagus
Flap of tissue above trachea
Covers trachea for swallowing so food does not enter airway
Muscular tube between pharynx and stomach
Transfers food from pharynx to stomach via peristalsis
Circle of muscle at top of stomach
Controls entrance of food to the stomach
Muscular bag of tissue with glandular tissue in its walls
walls churn and mix food to continue mechanical digestion
Where mucous and acid are secreted
Acidic conditions convert pepsinogen to pepsin to activate the enzyme
Chemical digestion of protein to polypeptides by pepsin
Circle of muscle at the bottom of the stomach
Controls the exit of the stomach
Release of food at this point is called CHYME (and contains HCl from gastric glands)
Bolus, acids, and enzymes
Food and spit inside the body
First part of the small intestine
Site of complete digestion of all four biological molecules and final breakdown of molecules digested by the mouth and stomach
Area where peptidase and maltase are secreted along with the hormones CCK and secretin which act on the pancreas and gall bladder to release juices
Accessory organ on the right of the body
Destroys old red blood cells and converts hemoglobin in them to bile components
Makes bile which emulsifies fat in the duodenum to speed up lipid digestion
Manufactures blood proteins such as clotting components
Regulates blood glucose levels by converting excess glucose to glycogen after a meal using insulin and the converting it back to glucose in the presence of glucagon when more is needed before a meal
Removes poisonous substances from the blood and attempts to metabolize them (or change them to a less hazardous form) eg. alcohol, so there is lots of smooth ER in these cells
Break down of proteins to release amine groups (NH3) which this organ quickly converts to urea to protect the body from the harmful substance
Stored bile until it is secreted into the duodenum
Produces digestive enzymes for the first step of chemical digestion of all four polymers
Produces sodium bicarbonate to buffer acid from stomach
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
major structure - villus with blood supply and lacteal of lymphatic system
Highly vascular to absorb nutrients into blood (capillary beds)
Hepatic Portal Vein
Water soluble nutrients are carried away from each villus by the capillaries of the circulatory system to the _________________, then to the liver capillaries
Small sac at juncture of small and large intestines, no function in digestion
Large Intestine (Colon)
Organ that absorbs water and water soluble minerals and vitamins. Contains E.Coli bacteria which manufactures vitamins that can be absorbed by the human body
Holding area for feces until they can be conveniently eliminated
Circle at muscle at the end of the digestive tract, controls the exit of feces.
Reflex action - contraction of the tongue and pharynx
When bolus is pushed into the esophagus
__________ covers the opening to the trachea
Waves of rhythmic muscle contractions that happen in the esophagus, stomach, and intestines.
Pushes and propels food along tubular passage
What is secreted when blood glucose is high (such as after a meal) and acts to lower blood glucose back to normal level.
stimulates liver, muscles, and fat to take up and metabolize glucose
stimulates liver to store glucose as glycogen
promotes build up of fats and protein and inhibits their use as energy
Does the opposite of insulin in converting glycogen to glucose
Produced by the liver, it breaks lipids into fat droplets which combine with it to become polar. This polarity allows the water soluble enzyme, lipase, to digest it and therefore turns into a fatty acid.
Found in mouth
includes: water for hydrolysis, mucous to lubricate, salivary amylase to convert starch to maltose
Found in stomach
Includes: gastrin (hormone causing release of pepsinogen), Pepsinogen (made by chief cells converts to pepsin), HCl (lowers pH below 3 to activate enzyme and kill microbes), mucous, water
Released from the pancreas
Found in the duodenum
Includes: sodium bicarbonate that brings up the pH of the chyme, pancreatic amylase (catalyses starch to maltose reaction), trypsin (protein to peptides), lipase (lipids to glycerol and fatty acids), nuclease (nucleic acids to nucleotides)
Combination of secretions from liver, pancreas, and intestinal walls
Found in duodenum
Includes: bile from liver to emulsify fats, pancreatic juice, gastic juice, maltase (maltose to 2 glucose molecules), peptidase (peptides to amino acids), CCK and Secretin (to trigger pancreatic juice to be released)
Starch to maltose
What does salivary amylase do?
Which secretion does all of the following:
puts pH <3 to activate the enzyme
combines with pepsinogen to activate pepsin
Protein to peptides
What does pepsin do?
What lines the stomach walls and protects them?
What releases pepsinogen?
Protein to peptides
What does trypsin do?
What catalyses starch to maltose reaction?
What turns lipids to glycerol and fatty acids?
What turns nucleic acids to nucleotides?
What raises the pH of chyme in the stomach?
What is from the liver and emulsifies fats to fat droplets?
Peptides to amino acids
What do peptidases do?
maltose to 2 glucose molecules
What does maltase do?
CCK and secretin
What 2 hormones trigger the release of pancreatic juice?