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40 terms

Muscular System

STUDY
PLAY
Myo
Muscle
Sarco
Muscle
Ligament
Bone to bone
Tendon
Muscle to bone. Fuse w bone periosteum
Fasciculus
Muscle fiber
Fibrils
Fibers in fasciculus. Muscle cell
Sarcoplasm
Muscular cytoplasm
Myofibril
Fibers in fibril.
Filaments
Fibers in myofibril. Actin and myosin
Small to large muscle formations
Filaments myofibril fibril fasciculus muscle
Sarcomere
Repeating pattern of actin and myosin.
Dystrophin
Protein fiber holds actin in place. Missing in md patients
Muscular dystrophy
Missing dystrophin, genetic, muscles atriphy. Duchenne- sex linked form
Hypertrophy
Muscles increase in diameter
Myoglobin
Protein that bonds to oxygen
Working out
Tear and produce more myofibrils. Increases myoglobin hypertrophy mitochondria and capillaries
Steroid effects
Organ damage, increase cholesterol, atherosclerosis, sad, violent, delusional
Muscle needs for contraction
Nervous stimulation, ph, oxygen, ca, energy
Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter
Motor unit
Motor neuron and its controlled fibrils
Motor point
Place where motor neuron enters the muscle
Neuromuscular junction
Space between neuron and muscle
Aerobic
High o levels. 1 glucose makes 36 atp. 1 fatty acid 17 atp
2 cellular respiration
Aerobic, anaerobic
Anaerobic
1 glucose yields 2 atp. Low o. Yields pyruvic acid-lactic acid
Rigor mortis
Lock up after death, sever atp depletion
Stored energy
Creatine/phosphate, glycogen in liver, fatty acid
2 factors of muscle performance
Conditioning and genes
Fast twitch
Weight lifters, less vessels myoglobin o mitochondria atp
Slow twitch
Endurance
Intermediate twitch
In between fast and slow
Muscle contraction
Acetylcholine, calcium ions diffuse, ca removes inhibiting protein from actin exposing active site, atp makes myosin crossbridge cock, 2nd atp breaks bond
Muscle relaxation
Passive. Atp break bonds, ca actively transported back to sarcoplasmic reticulum,
Cramp
Contracture, not enough atp to break bond
All or none law
Single muscle fibril will always completely contract or not at all with threshold
Threshold
Proper neurotransmitter stimulus for contraction
Botulism
Clostridium botulinum, prevents release of acetylcholine, paralyze muscles-diaphram
Clostridium tetani
Cause rigidity, lockjaw. From puncture would w spores
Polio
Virus attacks neurons, paralyze leg and respiratory.
Jonas salk
Polio vaccine