39 terms

Earth Sci: 1 - Introduction and Basic Facts

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geosphere
The solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and upper mantle.
atmosphere
An envolope of gases surrounding the earth or another planet.
hydrosphere
All the water at and near the surface of the earth, 97% of which is in oceans
biosphere
Consists of all life on Earth and all parts of the Earth in which life exists, including land, water, and the atmosphere.
biogeochemical cycle
The flow of chemical elements and compounds between living organisms and the physical environment.
cycle
A series of events that happen over and over again.
3 main layers of Earth
Crust, Mantle, Core
listhosphere
the crust and rigid upper mantle.
plastic upper mantle
the portion of the mantle lying between 40 and 700 miles below the surface where convection is known to move the lithospheric plates
core
The spherical center of the earth which includes solid inner core and liquid outer core.
convection
the movement of molecules in a fluid in a circular pattern, transporting both energy and matter of the fluid
tectonic theory
the idea that the lithosphere is broken up into plates that move over the surface of the earth.
diameter of Earth (miles)
8,000 miles
circumference of Earth (miles)
24,000 miles
speed of rotation of Earth at equator (miles per hour)
1,000 miles an hour
time required for Earth to rotate on axis (hours)
24 hours
mass of Earth (Kg)
6 x 10²⁴ kg
main composition of Earth's crust
silicate rocks (~75% silicate)
(OSiAlFeCalNaKMg)
estimated 0.5% of total Earth Mass
main composition of Earth's mantle
silicate magmas (~46% silicate) rich in magnesium and iron
estimated 67% of total Earth Mass
main composition of Earth's core
suspected as mostly iron and some nickel
estimated 32% of total Earth Mass
time required for Earth to orbit the Sun (days)
365 1/4 days
age of the Earth
4.6 billion years old
diameter of the Sun (miles)
800,000 miles
diameter of Sun - compared to Earth
110 x larger
mass of Sun - compared to Earth
300,000x greater
volume of Sun - compared to Earth
1.3 million times greater
time required for Sun to rotate on axis (at equator)
27 days
diameter of the Moon (miles)
2000 miles
diameter of Moon - compared to Earth
4 x less
mass of Moon - compared to Earth
80 x less
time required for Moon to orbit Earth with respect to fixed stars (sidereal orbit)
27.3 days
time required for Moon to rotate on axis
27.3 days
time required for Moon to appear in same position in sky relative to the Sun - moon phases (synodic orbit)
29.5 days
approximate distance form Earth to Sun (miles and Km)
93 million miles or 150 million km
(1 Astronomical Unit - AU)
approximate distance from Earth to Moon (miles)
250 thousand miles
(~30 Earth diameters)
Oceanic plate
Tectonic plates forming the ocean basin. Made of basalt and are thinner and more dense than continents
Continental Plates
Tectonic plates forming continents. Made of granite and are thicker and lighter than oceanic plates.
electromagnetic energy
A form of energy that travels through space as waves from the sun. Causes unequal heating of the Earth
Gravitational energy
Gravitational energy is the potential energy associated with the gravitational field.
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