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Biology of Organisms Exam 1
Terms in this set (62)
A family tree that shows the evolutionary relationships thought to exist among groups of organisms
What are emergent properties of life?
reproduction-organisms reproduce themselves
growth and development-heritable programs in organisms direct changes during their lifespans
energy utilization-organisms take in and transform energy to do term-6work
response to environment-organisms detect and respond to stimuli
homeostasis-organisms regulate their internal environment
evolutionary adaptation-organisms evolve as a result of interactions with the abiotic and biotic world
Core theme of biology
Evolutionary history of a species or group of species
Study of the diversity of life and the evolutionary relationships between organisms
Theory and practice of classifying organisms
Group or level of organization into which organisms are classified
phylogenetic tree diagram
Groups of organisms that share an immediate common ancestor and hence are each other's closest relatives
In a specified group of organisms, a taxon whose evolutionary lineage diverged early in the history of the group
Similarity in characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry
A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them
Evolutionary branch of a phylogenetic tree that includes a single ancestor and all its descendants
A taxonomic grouping that includes an ancestral species and all of its descendants
A monophyletic group in which some descendants of the common ancestor have been removed
A taxonomic grouping consisting of several species that lack a common ancestor (more work is needed to uncover species that tie them together into a monophyletic clade).
horizontal gene transfer
A process in which an organism incorporates genetic material from another organism without being the offspring of that organism
Give examples of the reproduction emergent property
mitosis, meiosis, haploid, diploid
Give examples of the growth and development emergent property
phenotypes expressed within lifespans and through life stages
Give examples of the energy utilization emergent property
autotrophy, heterotrophy, metabolism
Give examples of the response to environment emergent property
sensory, cell membrane signaling
Give examples of the homeostasis emergent property
water, temperature, pH, ions, total salts, nutrients, wastes
Give examples of the evolutionary adaptation emergent property
genetic and epigenetic expressions of phenotypes
What are the three domains?
Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya
What are the taxonomic categories?
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
What is the domain Eukarya
Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
What is the domain Archaea
Bacteria that can survive harsh conditions
What is the domain Bacteria
What is the evidence for primary endosymbiosis?
-presence of organelles with their own DNA
-presence of 2 separate lipid bilayers
-similarity of organelle DNA sequence to Proteobacteria
-similarity of organelle DNA sequence to cyanobacteria
What is the evidence for secondary endosymbiosis?
-three or more separate lipid bilayers
-chloroplasts and mitochondria of protists are similar to other protists
What are the four major lineages of protists?
What is an example of excavata?
What is an example of SAR clade?
What is an example of Archaeplastida?
What is an example of Unikonta?
basic sexual life cycle
Describe the life cycle of plasmodium parasite (apicomplexan)
primarily haploid, hosts are mosquito and human blood cells
Describe the life cycle of seaweed laminaria (phaeophyta)
alternates generations from asexual to sexual reproduction
Describe the life cycle of plasmodial slime mold (ameobizoan)
-turns to sexual reproduction when food is scarce
-develops in similar stages as humans after fertilization
What roles do protists play in the carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycles?
two major lineages
What are the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
-no membrane bound organelles
-membrane bound organelles
What does a gram negative mean?
Bacteria have less peptidoglycan, but have more complex cell walls, use oxygen and stain pink.
What does gram positive mean?
Bacteria containing a lot of peptidoglycan in their cell walls also tend to have less complex cell walls, stain purple.
The use of living organisms to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems
Bacteria that live around deep-sea, hot-water vents obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic hydrogen sulfide belched out by the vents. They use this energy to build organic molecules from carbon obtained from the carbon dioxide in seawater. These bacteria are _____.
light as an energy source and CO2 as a carbon source
You have found a new prokaryote. What line of evidence would support your hypothesis that the organism is a cyanobacterium _______.
able to form colonies and produce oxygen
A translocation is the transfer of a segment to a nonhomologous chromosome. Translocations may be reciprocal (two nonhomologous chromosomes exchange segments) or nonreciprocal (one chromosome transfers a segment without receiving one).
the temporary union of two bacteria or unicellular organisms for the exchange of genetic material.
similarity in structure due to common ancestry
forelimbs of vertebrates
Two independent starting points (species or population) that independently evolve similar adaptations in response to similar selection pressures/environments; flight/wings of insects, birds, and bats
What is thought to be the correct sequence of these events from earliest to the most recent in the evolution of life on earth?
1. origin of mitochondria
2. origin of multicellular organisms
3. origin of chloroplasts
4. origin of cyanobacteria
5. origin of fungal plant symbiosis
4, 1, 2, 3, 5
What took advantage of the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and oceans?
evolution of cellular respiration which used oxygen to help harvest energy from organic molecules
Which of the follow forms of nutrition of biology are not found in any protists?
What are the differences and similarities of flagella in protists and bacteria?
mechanism of movement is the same but the protein that accomplishes it is different
process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria
What is the importance of crispr systems in prokaryotes?
basically an immune system, cellular memory;
humans use it to insert genes into any organism
What energy and carbon source do photoautotrophs use?
light and CO2
What energy and carbon source do chemoautotroph use?
inorganic chemicals and CO2
What energy and carbon source do photoheterotrophs use?
light and organic compounds
What energy and carbon source do chemoheterotrophs use?
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