AP Psychology: Unit 8 - Social Psychology

Define Social Psychology
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It is the tendency for observers, when analyzing others' behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition. An example would be in class, Jack may be as quiet as Juliette. Catch Juliette as the lead of the high school musical and you may hardly recognize your quiet classmate.
How might the foot-in-the-door phenomenon help explain the participants' willingness to increase shock levels during Milgram's experiment?The teachers may have been more complying to the lower shock levels at first may comply to higher shock levels as they increase (first agreed to a small request to comply with a larger request).Which does the behavior of the guards in Zimbardo's Prison simulation better illustrate: situational or dispositional factors?Situational because due to the "prison" environment.You are mediocre at a skill during practice, but find that your performance improves when people are watching, Which social psychology principle is at work?Social facilitation (improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others).Under what circumstances might social facilitation decrease the level of performance?In tougher tasks, people perform worse when observers or others working on the same task are present.Which psychological concept is illustrated by the chart to the right (see notes question #15)Group polarization, the enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.Define prejudice.An unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.Define stereotype.A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.Define discrimination.Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.Describe the scapegoat theory.The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame."Aggression varies too widely from culture to culture, era to era and person to person to be considered an _______________________ instinct."Unlearned.What have studies revealed about brain activity in violent criminals?They have revealed diminished activity in the frontal lobes, which play an important role in controlling impulses.The frustration-aggression principle would dictate that youths who've been bullied by peers might be especially likely to respond with aggression if ______________________.They were previously aggressive.What is an example of a misleading social script?Social script is a culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations. An example would be after so many action films, teens may acquire a script that plays in their head when they face real-life conflicts.What is the "rape myth" and what is one way in which it is perpetuated?It is the idea that some women invite or enjoy rape and get "swept away" while being "taken". Many men and women who watch a great deal of TV are more accepting of this myth.How might similarity encourage attraction?The more alike people are, the more their liking endures because they may share common attitudes, beliefs and interests.John has just gone for a good run. During that run he ran into (not literally!) a friend from his clique at school, Cassandra, who suggested everyone meet that night for pizza and a movie. When he gets home, Dan starts thinking about Cassandra in a romantic way. What might explain this?Passionate love, an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.What is the two-factor theory of emotion?The Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal. Therefore, emotions have two ingredients - physical arousal plus cognitive appraisalDefine companionate love. Can you provide an example?The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined. An example is a long lasting bestfriend or marriage.Describe the bystander effect.The bystander effect is the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.Describe the social exchange theory.The social exchange theory is the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. We get more out of helping than not.Name two social norms that influence altruistic behavior.Reciprocity norm- an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them social-responsibility norm- an expectation that people will help those needing their help.What is a social trap?A social trap is a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest rather than the good of the group, become caught in mutually destructive behavior. Own selfish interests result in unfavorable consequences.How can contact between two conflicting parties promote peace?When contact is noncompetitive between two parties of equal status, it typically can help. When such mirror-image misperceptions are corrected, friendships may then form and prejudices melt.What is the purpose of GRIT (Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension Reduction).It is Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction - a strategy designed to decrease international tensions. The purpose is to open a door of reciprocity (mutual exchange) by the other party.