Chapter 15

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Thirteenth Amendment
This abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime. It was passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, by the House on January 31, 1865, and adopted on December 6, 1865. On December 18, 1865, Secretary of State William H. Seward proclaimed its adoption. It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted following the American Civil War.
Emancipation Proclamation
This issued the freedom of slaves in the ten states that were still in rebellion,It was based on the president's constitutional authority as commander in chief of the armed forces; it was not a law passed by Congress. It also issued that those freed could serve in the US army and for the government
Freedmen's Bureau
This was a U.S. federal government agency that aided distressed freed slaves during the Reconstruction era of the United States. The Bill, which established this in March 3, 1865, was initiated by President Abraham Lincoln and was intended to last for one year after the end of the Civil War.
Wade- Davis Bill
A bill proposed for the Reconstruction of the South written by two Radical Republicans. This bill made re-admittance to the Union for former Confederate states contingent on a majority in each Southern state to take the Ironclad oath to the effect they had never in the past supported the Confederacy. The bill passed both houses of Congress on July 2, 1864, but was pocket vetoed by Lincoln and never took effect
Andrew Johnson
17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869. The new president favored quick restoration of the seceded states to the Union. His plans did not give protection to the former slaves, and he came into conflict with the Republican-dominated Congress, culminating in his impeachment by the House of Representatives.
Abraham Lincoln
was the 16th president of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through its Civil War. He preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy.
Robert E Lee
An American soldier best known for commanding the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia in the American Civil War from 1862 until his surrender in 1865.
Jefferson Davis
was an American soldier and politician, and was the President of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, 1861 to 1865. He took personal charge of the Confederate war plans but was unable to find a strategy to defeat the more populous and industrialized Union.
John Wilkes Booth
an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
Presidential Reconstruction
The transformation of the Southern United States from 1863 to 1877, as directed by Congress. It freed the slaves, giving African American farmers, businessmen and soldiers the right to vote for the first time in 1867.
Black codes
Laws made in the southern states that made the only jobs available to blacks to be slave like jobs on plantations and such. It also allowed law enforcement to fine them and give them jobs working for masters to repay their debt
The fourteenth amendment
The amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws, and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the American Civil War. The Due Process Clause prohibits state and local government officials from depriving persons of life, liberty, or property without legislative authorization.
Fifteenth Amendment
prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude". It was ratified on February 3, 1870, as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments.
Command of the Army Act
reduce president's control over army by prohibiting the president from issuing military orders except through commanding general of the army (Ulysees Grant)
Congressional Reconstruction
A process led by the Radical Republicans that led to the usage of military force to protect blacks' rights. It included the ratification of the 3 reconstruction amendments by all states of the former confederacy
Civil Rights act of 1866
the first United States federal law to define US citizenship and affirmed that all citizens were equally protected by the law.[1] It was mainly intended to protect the civil rights of African-Americans, in the wake of the American Civil War
The Congressional Plan
readmitted Tennessee, combined former Confederate states into 5 military districts, military commanders governed each district, allowed blacks to vote (3 amendments)
Tenure of Office Act
a United States federal law (in force from 1867 to 1887) that was intended to restrict the power of the President of the United States to remove certain office-holders without the approval of the Senate. The law was enacted on March 3, 1867, over the veto of President Andrew Johnson
Impeachment of Johnson
one of the most dramatic events in the political life of the United States during Reconstruction. The first impeachment of a sitting United States president, it was the consummation of a lengthy political battle between the moderate Johnson and the "Radical Republican" movement that dominated Congress and sought control of Reconstruction policies. 1868
Scalawags
Former Democrats of the whig party who supported congressional reconstruction in the south because they thought it would serve them better economically
Carpetbaggers
White men from the North who served as republican leaders in the south. Their nickname referred to penniless adventurers who arrived with all this repossessions in a carpetbag.
Freedmen
The most numerous republicans in the south who had recently been emancipated and integrated themselves into politics despite not knowing them before
The Civil Rights Act of 1875
The piece of legislation that attempted to mandate integration in schools as well as in public accommodations and transportations. It was passed but decided unconstitutional later in the century
forty acres and a mule
the dreams among farmer slaves during June of 1865 because of the Freedmen's Bureau settling nearly 10,00 black families on their own plantations
Freedmen's Bank
Antislavery whites persuaded newly freed blacks to deposit their savings in a bank and willingly invested it for them. However, they were not prepared to do so and the investments lost money causing the depression of the 1870s
Sharecropping
a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on the land. The South had been devastated by war; planters had ample land but little money for wages or taxes. At the same time, most of the former slaves had labor but no money and no land; they rejected the kind of gang labor that typified slavery. The solution was this system
Crop-Lien System
Sharecroppers and tenant farmers who did not own the land they worked obtained supplies and food on credit from local merchants. They held a claim on the cotton crop and the merchants and landowners were the first ones paid from its sale. What was left over went to the farmer.
Ulysees S. Grant
Former Civil War General become the 18th president of the United States
Liberal Republicans
a political party that was organized in Cincinnati in May 1872, to oppose the reelection of President Ulysses S. Grant and his Radical Republican supporters in the presidential election of 1872. The party's candidate was Horace Greeley
Panic of 1873
a financial crisis that triggered a depression in Europe and North America that lasted from 1873 until 1879,
Wiliam H. Seward
Worked under Lincoln, Johnson, and Grant for years and accepted Russia's proposal of selling Alaska
Alabama Claims
A series of claims for damages by the government of the US against the government of the United Kingdom for the perceived covert assistance given to the Confederate cause during the American Civil War
Grantism
A 19th century term for political corruption during the Gilded Age. Which included bribery scandals, abuses of the spoils system and political cronyism.
Credit Mobilier
1872, This was a fraudulent construction company created to take the profits of the Union Pacific Railroad. Using government funds for the railroad, the Union Pacific directors gave padded construction contracts to Congress members
Specie Resumption Act
Provided that after january 1879 the greenback dollars, whose value constantly fluctuated, would be redeemed by the government and replaced with new certificates firmly pegged to the price of gold.
Hamilton Fish
He served as Grant's secretary of state. He arranged the Treaty of Washington, which settled disputes with Britain over the Alabama claims the and Canadian-American boundary. Also, he prevented American filibustering expeditions against Cuba from escalating into war with Spain.
Redeemed
The South's term for rebuilding their own racist governments and overthrowing the republicans
Enforcement acts
1870-71 Three acts passed by Congress allowing the government to use military force to stop violence against former slaves by the KKK. One penalized anyone who restricted another's right to vote; the second Act required all elections to be monitored by Federal officials and marshals; the third Act allowed the suspension of habeas corpus for Klansmen.
Rutherford B. hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
Special Electoral Commission
used to stop the grid-lock on who the president would be; 5 representatives, 5 senators, and 5 justices
Compromise of 1877
..., Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Ku Klux Klan
A secret society created by white southerners in 1866 that used terror and violence to keep African Americans from obtaining their civil rights.
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Samuel J. Tilden
Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century.
Election of 1874
Republicans lost heavily. Democrats gained house control. It showed the end of Reconstruction. This was also the election in which Grant attempted a second term
Henry Grady
Editor of the Atlanta Constitution, preached about economically diversified South with industries and small farms, and absent of the influence of the pre-war planter elite in the political world.
Cash Crop
a readily salable crop that is grown and gathered for the market (as vegetables or cotton or tobacco)
Maggie Lena
Founded the St. Luke Penny Savings Bank in Virginia. First American woman to serve as a bank president.
Atlanta Compromise
The agreement was that Southern blacks would work meekly and submit to white political rule, while Southern whites guaranteed that blacks would receive basic education and due process in law.[3][4] Blacks would not agitate for equality, integration, or justice, and Northern whites would fund black educational charities. IT was lead by Booker T. Washington
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Poll Tax
A tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
Grandfather Laws
permitted men who could not meet the literacy and property qualifications to be enfranchised if their ancestors had voted before Reconstruction began (thus barring the descendants of slaves from the polls while allowing poor whites access to them
Jim Crow Laws
State laws in the South that legalized segregation.
Convict-Lease System
blacks who went to prison taken out and used for labor in slave-like conditions, enforced southern racial hierarchy
Fence Laws
These required farmers to fence off their animals instead of their crops, as had previously been the custom. This ended the open range system.
Booker T. Washington
..., African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
Civil Rights Cases of 1883
Court ruled that Congress could not legislate against the racial discrimination practiced by private citizens.
Cumming v. Country Board of Education
a class action suit decided by the Supreme Court of the United States. It is a landmark case, in that it sanctioned de jure segregation of races in American schools. The decision was overruled by Brown v. Board of Education
Literacy Tests
Method used to deny African-Americans the vote in the South that tested a person's ability to read and write - they were done very unfairly so even though most African-Americans could read and write by the 1950's they still failed.
Williams v. Mississippi
1898 - The Mississippi supreme court ruled that poll taxes and literacy tests, which took away blacks' right to vote (a practice known as "disenfranchisement"), were legal.
Ida B. Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned stores
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