The Art of Public Speaking (13th Edition) - Chapters 1-3
Terms in this set (39)
anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience
A hormone released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress
controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for her or his presentation
mental imagery in which speakers vividly picture themselves giving a successful presentation
focused, organized thinking about things such as the relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion
________ ________ is, to some extent, a matter of logic—being able to spot weaknesses in others' arguments and avoid them in your own. It also involves skills like being able to distinguish fact from opinion, judge the credibility of sources, and assess the soundness of evidence.
Similarities Between Public Speaking and Conversation
1. Logical organization of thoughts.
2. Message tailored to the audience.
3. Story told for maximum impact (e.g., building up to the punchline).
4. Adaptation to listener feedback (e.g., elaborating when a listener looks confused).
speaker (The Speech Communication Process)
the person who is presenting an oral message to an audience
message (The Speech Communication Process)
whatever the speaker communicates to the audience
what is said by the speaker
how the message is said by the speaker
channel (The Speech Communication Process)
the means by which the speaker communicates the message
listener (The Speech Communication Process)
the person who is receiving the message from the speaker
frame of reference
the sum of a person's knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitude
Everything a speaker says is filtered through a listener's _____ __ _________.
feedback (The Speech Communication Process)
the message, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker
interference (The Speech Communication Process)
anything that impedes the communication of a message
interference external to the audience (e.g., when talking on the phone, the call is interrupted by static)
interference that comes from within the audience (e.g., one audience member has a toothache; he/she may be distracted by the pain, taking their attention away from the presentation)
situation (The Speech Communication Process)
the time and place in which speech communication occurs
the belief that one's own group or culture is superior to all others
As society becomes more diverse, it is important as a speaker to avoid _____________.
the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs
sound decisions that involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines
the use of language to defame, demean, or degrade individuals or groups
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution
presenting another person's language or ideas as one's own
stealing a speech entirely from a single source and passing it off as one's own
stealing ideas or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one's own
failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people
To avoid ___________ __________, use quotations for the necessary parts of the speech and/or paraphrase.
to restate or summarize an author's ideas in one's own words
Guidelines for Ethical Listening
1. Listen courteously and attentively.
2. Avoid prejudging the speaker.
3. Maintain the free and open expression of ideas.
a psychological process involving the vibration of sound waves on our eardrums and the firing of electro-chemical impulses from the inner ear to the central auditory system of the brain
paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear
spare "brain time"
the difference between the rate at which most people talk (120 to 180 words a minute) and the rate at which the brain can process language (400 to 500 words a minute)
giving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to understand the speaker's point of view
an outline that briefly notes a speaker's main points and supporting evidence in rough outline form
listening for pleasure or enjoyment
listening to provide emotional support for a speaker
listening to understand the message of a speaker
listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it
Four Causes of Poor Listening
1. Not concentrating.
2. Listening too hard.
3. Jumping to conclusions.
4. Focusing on delivery and personal appearance (i.e., judging the speaker).
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