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The hypothalamus has a nucleus called the _____ that stimulates water intake and inhibits salivation.
A chemical that converts a strong acid or base to a weak one and thus resists pH changes is called a/an _____.
The amount of water lost by way of the respiratory system is greater in cold weather than in hot weather.
Long-term satiation of thirst is mainly due to distension of the stomach by the swallowed water.
Volume excess is the opposite of
A) hypotonic hydration.
C) volume depletion.
D) water intoxication.
E) positive water balance.
Blockage of the lymphatic vessels draining a region of the body is most likely to cause
A) insensible water loss.
B) cutaneous transpiration.
C) negative water balance.
D) positive water balance.
Atrial natriuretic factor is secreted in response to
A) increases water and sodium reabsorption.
B) increases water reabsorption but not sodium reabsorption.
C) increases urine output but not urine concentration.
D) increases the volume and concentration of the urine.
E) reduces the glomerular filtration rate.
Which of the following cations is most concentrated in the intracellular fluid?
Which of the following cations is most concentrated in the extracellular fluid?
A deficiency of potassium ions in the blood is called
People who have lost a lot of blood often feel intensely thirsty. This is because
A) angiotensin II is produces and stimulates the thirst center.
B) the osmolarity of the remaining blood is elevated.
C) the hypothalamic osmoreceptors respond to falling blood pressure.
D) ADH is released and stimulates the thirst center.
E) the loss of plasma electrolytes stimulates the thirst center.
The lymphatic system helps maintain fluid balance by
A) returning fluid from the interstitial compartment to the bloodstream.
B) transferring excess water from the bloodstream to the tissue fluid.
C) compensating for the hypovolemia by releasing stored fluid to the tissues.
D) compensating for hypervolemia by absorbing and storing excess fluid.
E) maintaining equilibrium between fluid intake and output.
Aldosterone has which of the following effects?
A) increases Na+ and K+ reabsorption
B) reduces Na+ and K+ reabsorption
C) causes the urine to be more dilute
D) reduces Na+ reabsorption and increases K+ reabsorption
E) increases Na+ reabsorption and reduces K+ reabsorption
Increasing the K+ concentration of the extracellular fluid (ECF) will
A) cause more K+ ro diffuse out of the cells into the ECF.
B) usually not affect the intracellular K+ concentration.
C) raise cell membrane potentials and make cells more excitable.
D) lower cell membrane potentials and make cells more excitable.
E) lower cell membrane potentials and make cells less excitable.
If a person's urine has an unusually high concentration of ammonium chloride, we would suspect that the person has
A) Addison's disease.
E) an abnormally high rate of amino acid catabolism.
The volume of water in a cell is governed mainly by the amount of _____ in the cytoplasm.
Which of the following diseases is most likely to produce metabolic acidosis?
B) diabetes mellitus
C) diabetes insipidus
D) Addison's disease
The _____ is a serous membrane that extends from the lesser curvature of the stomach to the liver.
Activities of different regions of the digestive tract are coordinated with each other through the _____ nerve plexus between two layers of the muscularis externa.
The partially digested slurry that passes from the stomach into the small intestine is called _____.
As a prelude to enzymatic digestion, fat must be _____, or broken up into small droplets suspended in the chyme.
The stomach lining is so well protected by mucus and tight junctions that its epithelial cells die at a very slow rate.
All of the following except _____ contribute to the large surface area available for nutrient absorption in the small intestine.
A) circular folds
B) intestinal length
If a person has malocclusion (mal- =bad),
A) he or she has difficulty swallowing.
B) there is an occlusion (obstruction) of the bile duct, perhaps by gallstones.
C) the teeth do not meet properly when the mouth is closed.
D) he or she has constipation.
E) he or she had indigestion.
Which of the following cells are not found in the gastric glands?
A) chief cells
B) goblet cells
C) parietal cells
D) mucous neck cells
E) enteroendocrine cells
The swallowing center is located in
A) the mouth
B) the oropharynx
C) the esophagus
D) the brainstem
E) the enteric nervous system
Bacteria -destroying macrophages are found in sinusoids of
A) the liver.
B) the pancreas.
C) the intestinal crypts.
D) the gastric glands.
E) the appendix.
Vitamin B12, which is needed for red blood cell production, requires _____ for its absorption.
A) intrinsic factor
B) bile salts
D) hydrochloric acid
Chylomicrons are produced in
A) the mouth, by the action of lingual lipase.
B) the stomach, by the action of the gastric lipase
C) the lumen of the small intestine, as lipids are absorbed
D) the epithelial cells of the small intestine, as lipids are absorbed
E) the lymph, as fats are absorbed
The release of bile into the duodenum is controlled by
A) the hepatopancreatic sphincter.
B) the gastroesphageal sphincter.
C) the pyloric sphincter.
D) the biliary valve.
E) the ileocecal valve.
Which of these is the site of contact digestion?
A) the gastric pits
B) the surface of the gastric mucosa
C) the intestinal crypts
D) the brush border of the small intestine
E) the cytoplasm of the small intestinal cells
What are Peyer's patches, and where are they located?
A) mucous glands of the duodenal submucosa
B) fatty, clublike appendages on the serosa of the colon
C) lymphatic follicles of the ileum
D) peptic ulcers that may occur in the stomach or duodenum
E) lymphatic tissues of the oropharynx
Of the following components of bile, only _____ has/have a digestive function.
A) bile salts
E) neutral fats
The absorption of _____ depends on the presence of vitamin D.
A) vitamin K
Most of the water entering the digestive tract each day comes from
A) gastrointestinal secretions.
E) metabolic water.
The small intestine is suspended from the dorsal body wall by
A) the falciform ligament.
B) the mesentary.
C) the greater omentum.
D) the lesser omentum.
E) the epiploic appendages.
Fat has a _____ effect, meaning that by meeting the energy needs of many tissues, it leaves more glucose available for those tissues that depend on it exclusively.
There are ten amino acids that the body cannot synthesize and therefore must acquire from the diet. They are called the _____ amino acids.
Lipoproteins that transport newly absorbed dietary fats in the lymph and blood are called _____.
The metabolic reaction chain that splits glucose into two molecules of pyrvic acid is called _____.
When stored glycogen is needed for energy, it is hydrolyzed to glucose through a preocess called _____.
when the stomach and small intestine are empty and the body is drawing on its stored energy reserves, it is in the _____ state.
In a state of nitrogen balance
A) nitrogen intake and output are equal.
B) the rates of muscle growth and atrophy are equal.
C) equal amounts of nitrogen are supplied by proteins and nucleic acids.
D) 50% of the RDA of nitrogen comes from essential amino acids and 50% is produced in the body.
A gram of fat has about _____ the calories of a gram of starch.
E) five times
Eicosanoids and bile salts are made from which of the following nutrients?
When fats are incompletely oxidized, they yield _____, which may cause acidosis.
B) fatty acids
D) amino acids
E) acetal groups
During periods of fasting, fat is said to have a protein-sparing effect because the body
A) oxidizes its spare proteins unless it depletes its fat reserves.
B) does not oxidize its proteins unless it has consumed its fat reserves.
C) must have an adequate fat intake in order to absorb and metabolize fats.
D) must have an adequate protein intake in order to absorb and metabolize fats.
E) metabolizes fats and proteins through the same metabolic pathways.
Which of the following is not a dietary source of cholesterol?
C) whole milk
E) corn oil
The highest percentage of cholesterol is found in
B) chylomicron remnants
Which of the following would provide the lowest quantity of minerals for a given weight of food?
A) peas and beans
B) eggs and milk
C) broccoli and carrots
D) fish and oysters
E) rice and white flour
Approximately _____ of the energy in a glucose molecule winds up in ATP molecules at the end of aerobic respiration?
The conversion of amino acids to glucose is called
The liver performs all of the following functions except
B) secretion of digestive enzymes.
E) synthesis of plasma proteins.
The liver performs all of the following functions except
A) disposal of chylomicron remnants.
B) production of high-density lipoproteins.
C) absorption of digested nutrients.
D) synthesis of urea.
E) synthesis of clotting factors.
The synthesis and storage of triglycerides is called
E) the fat-sparing effect.
Which of the following nutrients is most likely to circulate through the skeletal muscle before it ever circulates through the liver?
A) a triglyceride
B) an amino acid
D) ascorbic acid
The loss of body heat by conduction can be enhanced by
C) non-shivering thermogenesis
D) shivering thermogenesis
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