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psychology seminar 1 - psychological stress
Terms in this set (80)
The development of stress models are?
-Cannon's fight or flight model 1932
-Selye's general adaptation syndrome 1956
-Life events theory 1967
-Transactional model of stress 1970
what is stress?
external environmental stress as stressor
respond to stressor as eustress (beneficial stress) or distress (bad stress)
concept of stress as something that involves biochemical, physiological, behavioral and psychological changes
such as an exam or having to give a public talk
such as a job stress and poverty
cannons fight or flight model
-external threats cause the flight or fight response involving an increased activity rate and increased arousal
-these psychological changes enable the individual to either escape from the source of stress or fight
-prolonged stress can result in medical problems
Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome
-distress and eustress
-three-stage process which describes the body's reaction to stress:
1) alarm reaction (mobilize resources)
2) resistance (cope with stressor)
3) exhaustion (reserves depleted)
harmful and damaging
postive and beneficial
phase one of selves general adaption syndrome; alarm reaction
-intermediate reaction to a stressor
-in the initial phase of stress humans express a fight or flight response which causes one to be ready for physical activity
-can also decrease the effectiveness of the immune system making persons more susceptible to illness during this phase
phase two of selves general adaption syndrome; resistance (adaptation)
-if stress continues the body adapts to the stressors its exposed to
-changes at many levels take place in order to reduce the effect of the stressor
phase three of selves general adaption syndrome; exhaustion
body resistance to the stress may gradually be reduced or may collapse quickly --> meaning the immune system and the bodies ability to resist a disease may be eliminated
life events theory: which methods are used in this theory?
1) social readjustment rating scale
2) life change units (LCU)
how is LCU measured?
each event is given a score that represent the amount of readjustment a person has to make in life as a result of change
values of LCU
-people with 300 or higher --> higher health risk
-200 and 299 points --> 50% chance of serious health change within two years
-people scoring between 150 and 199 --> 33% chance of serious health change
Moos and Swindle life events should not be evaluated in isolation but should be integrated into two facets of an individuals life which is ________ and ________
-ongoing social resources (social support, financial resources)
transactional model of stress
-the individual don't passively respond to the external world but interact with it
transactional model of stress
A four-step framework for evaluating an individual's coping process for a stressor; an individual evaluates the stressor and her or his coping resources before deciding how to respond and then whether the response was successful.
change stressor or one's relationship to it through direct actions and/or problem solving strategies
-seek options to fight or flight
-prevent future stress
change self through activities that make one feel relaxed but do not change the stressor
-somatically focused activities --> use for antianxiety medication, relaxation, biofeedback
-cognitively focused activities --> planned distraction, fantasies, thoughts about oneself
-therapy to adjust conscious or unconscious processes that lead to additional anxiety
stress is a product of the individuals capacity for _______
defense mechanisms (Sigmund freud)
in psychoanalysis --> any of a variety of unconscious personality reactions which the ego uses to protect the conscious mind from threatening feelings and perceptions
sigmund freud viewed the defense mechanism as a singular phenomenon of _________
George vaillants hierarchy
in this hierarchy categorization defenses form a continuum regarding to their psychoanalytical developmental level
George vaillants hierarchy levels:
level 1 --> psychotic defenses
level 2 --> immature defenses
level 3 --> neurotic defenses
level 4 --> mature defenses
level 1 --> psychotic defenses
denial: Protecting self from unpleasant reality by refusing it
idealization: Dealing with emotional stressors by overestimating the desirable qualities and underestimatingthe limitations of a desired object
devaluation: Attributing unrealistic negative qualities to self or others, as a means of punishing the self or reducing the impact of the devaluated item
identification: The unconscious modelling of one's self upon another person. One may also identify with values and attitudes of a group (same skor som klasskompis men blir arg när hon blir upplyst om det)
introjection: Identifying with some idea or object so deeply that it becomes a part of that person
projection: Unacceptable emotions or personal qualities are disowned by attributing them to others (Saying others hate you when it is you who hates the others)
splitting: When someone who can't cope with ambivalent feelings about others categorize those people as all good or all bad
level 2 ---> immature defenses
Aim inhibition: Placing a limitation upon instinctual demands; accepting partial or modified fullfilment of desires
Acting out: The individual deals with emotional conflict or internal or external stressors by actions rather than reflections or feelings
Passive aggression: Dealing with emotional stressors by indirectly and unassertively expressing aggression toward others
Regression: Dealing with emotional stressors by returning to a less mature, anxiety reducing behaviour
Dealing with emotional stressors by physical symptoms involving parts of the body innervated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic system
Autistic Fantasy: Avoidance of conflict by creating imaginary situations that satisfy drives or desires
level 3 ---> neurotic defenses
Avoidance: Refusing to encounter situations, objects, or activities because of the fear of failures or difficulties
Compensation: Encountering failure or frustration in some sphere of activity, one overemphasizes another.
The term is also applied to the processof over-correcting for a handicap or limitation
Conversion: Conflicts are presented by physical symptoms involving portions of the body innervated by sensory or motor nerves
Displacement: Conflicts are displaced from a threatening object onto a less threatening one
Conflict is defused by separating ideas from affects, thus retaining an awareness of intellectual or factual aspects but losing touch with threatening emotions (A medical student dissects a cadaver without being disturbed by thoughts of death)
Rationalization: Offering a socially acceptable and apparently more or less logical explanation for an act or decision actually produced by unconscious impulses (A woman with a closet full of dresses buys a new one because she doesn't have anything to wear)
Reaction formation: Going to the opposite extreme; overcompensation for unacceptable impulses
Repression: The blocking of unacceptable impulses from consciousness
Undoing: An act or communication which partially negates a previous one
level 4 ---> mature defenses
Altruism: Dealing with emotional stressors by dedication to meeting the needs of others (A person putting away her own problems starts to volunteer)
Anticipation: Dealing with emotional stressors by experiencing emotional reactions in advance of, or anticipating consequences of, possible future events and considering realistic, alternative responses solutions (After a difficult job interview an unemployed candidate expects that he might not be selected by the employer)
Humor: The individual deals with emotional conflict external stressors by emphasizing the amusing or ironic aspects of the conflict or stressors
Sublimation: Dealing with emotional stressors by using the energy in other, usually constructive activities and socially accepted
Suppression: Dealing with emotional stressors by deferred dealing with the stressor
stress is a product of the individual capacity for self-control, but what eradicates stress?
-successful coping and self-management
Self-efficacy refers to an individual's feeling of confidence that they can perform a desired action
-Personal feelings of control
-A desire to accept challenges
-Individual's control over their stress response
-The degree of mastery may be related to the stress response
What events are appraised as stressful?
a) salient events
c) ambiguous events
d) uncontrollable events
e) all of the above
life event causing the biggest stress overload is:
a) visit of mother in low during Christmas
c) death of a spouse
d) trouble with boss
a) stress that is positive and beneficial
b) stress that is harmful and damaging
c) eugenic stress
describe shortly part of personality structure according to psychoanalytic theory:
Sigmund Freuds psychoanalytic theory of personality argues that human behavior is the result of the interactions among three component parts of the mind; id, ego and superego
fill in the gaps:
_________ - focused coping includes all the active efforts to manage stressful situations and alter a troubled person-environment to modify or eliminate the source of stress via individual behavior
fill in the gaps:
_________ - focused coping includes all the regulative efforts to diminish the emotional consequences of stressful events
describe the main differences between coping strategies and defense mechanisms:
-unconscious mechanisms which are activated in times of anxiety, stress and distress without any choice
-helps individual by distorting reality
-conscious strategies that are chosen in calm emotional states
-attempt at solving problem
could you mention typical clinical condition for denial (psychotic defense)?
protecting self from unpleasant reality by refusing it:
1) A disabled person plans to return to former activities without planning a realistic program of rehabilitation.
2) A woman refuses to acknowledge a pregnancy, despite positive test results.
3) Persons living near a volcano disregard the dangers involved
CONDITIONS: drugabuse, terminal ill
this phenomenon has been defined in transactional model of stress as the process of managing stressor that have been appraised as taxing or exceeding a person resources and as the efforts to manage environmental and internal demands.
a) psychological defense mechanisms
b) type A behavior
c) coping strategies/styles
social support reduces the effect of the stressor and its absence itself acting as a stressor. which hypothesis is this?
a) the ill-health hypothesis
b) the main effect hypothesis
c) the stress buffering hypothesis
d) defense mechanism hypothesis
talking to friends about a problem is:
a) problem focused coping
b) emotion focused coping
c) instrumental focused coping
d) none of the above
the function of the defenses is:
a) to bring unconscious conflict to the conscious level
b) to protect the ego from the anxiety as the individual is able to think
c) to establish social rules inside the psychic structure of the individual
d) to supply the individuals psychic structure with instinctual drives
there is one stage of development (freud psychosexual stages) in which fixation is no occurring. what means that development can't be distributed at this age because of inner reasons (drives). which stage is this?
which psychological defense mechanism redirect emotions to a substitute target?
d) reaction formation
a smoker concludes that the evidence linking cigarettes use to health problems is scientifically worthless. which psychological defense mechanism is this?
c) reaction formation
d) none of the above
converting unwanted or dangerous feelings into their opposites is called __________
physical symptoms in stressful situations are:
a) shortness of breath, increased muscle tension
b) deep breath, decreased muscle tension
c) shortness of breath, decreased muscle tension
d) deep breath, increased muscle tension
depressive mood in the patient who suffers from diabetes is the result of primary appraisal of the illness as a stressor. which belief illustrates this process?
a) "I'm losing my free will to choose what I want to eat how I want to spent my time"
b) there is a danger that my life become a jail because of dietary and lifestyles regime"
c) "at least I have got the opportunity to fight with my fortune and to win because I deserve it"
d) "I'm worth nothing since im ill person"
e) a and d
change the stressor or ones relationship to it through direct actions or problems is:
a) problem directed coping
b) emotion focused coping
c) acting out
transformation of negative emotions or intrinsics into positive actions, behavior or emotions. which psychological defense mechanism is this?
c) reaction formation
ALTRUISM OR SUBLIMITATION
"It is the dark, inaccessible part of our personality, what little we know of it we have learned from our study of the dreamwork and of course the construction of neurotic symptoms, and most of that is of a negative character and can be described only as a contrast to the ego. We approach the it with analogies: we call it a chaos, a cauldron full of seething excitations. ...It is filled with energy reaching it from the instincts, but it has no organization, produces no collective will, but only a striving to bring about the satisfaction of the instinctual needs subject to the observance of the pleasure principle" - sigmund freud
a) oedipus complex
d) i. ihidn
attributing uncomfortable feeling to others is psychological defense mechanism:
a) reaction formation
which model describes stress as an automatic response to external stressors?
a) life events theory
b) fight or flight theory
d) b and c
resistance and vulnerability factor influencing stress and health relation are:
a) coping responses
b) personality characteristics
c) social support
d) all of the above
the term "psychotic defense" refers to unconscious attempt to:
a) come back to the childhood
b) establish new reality by avoiding conflict situations
c) ignore outside reality
d) to replace outside reality by ones own psychic stricter (inner reality)
which stress theory examines stress as a response to life experience?
b) general adaption syndrome
c) self control theory
d) fight or flight theory
a student who unconsciously dislikes his teacher thinks that the teacher does not like her. which psychological defense mechanism is this?
b) reaction formation
consciousness according to psychoanalytic approach is an area for:
direct expression of an unconscious wish or impulse in action without conscious awareness of the emotion that drives that expressive behavior. which psychological defense mechanism is this?
ACTING OUT ?
__________ disappears under mature overlooks emotions cognitive behavior
defense mechanisms comes from?
suppression is an example of _______________ defense
anticipations is not a big stress factor, true or false?
This phenomenon has been defined in transactional model of stress as the process of managing stressors that have been appraised as taxing or exceeding a person's resources and as the efforts to manage environmental and internal demands.
a) Psychological defense mechanisms
b) Type A behavior
c) Coping strategies/styles
Transactional model of stress contains of:
a. primary arousal
b. secondary arousal
c. potential stressor
d. direct action, seeking information, down nothing, relaxation, defense mechanism e. stress
c) and d) ????
Yerkes - Dodsons law / graph: For easy or simple tasks, a high level of arousal (stress) increases performance or effectiveness. However, for difficult/complex tasks a lower level of arousal is optimal.
Repression, secondary gain, resistance, defense mechanisms are concepts describing:
Psychoanalysis of freud is composed of?
- Described situation -> write which type of defense or personality
Unconsciousness, according to psychoanalytic approach is an area for:
a. Ego (conscious)
b. superego (both unconscious and conscious)
c. id (correct if ONLY unconsciousness)
d. a+b (superego to some extent)
protecting self from unpleasant reality by refusing it may exhibit one of the following
psychological defense mechanisms level:
a) psychotic defenses (denial)
b) neurotic defenses
c) immature defenses
d) mature defenses
primary appraisal (transactional model of stress) results in patients emotional reaction to the illness and medical treatment. what kind of this appraisal of stressful situation is responsible for patients anxious attitude in the course of the treatment?
a) situation is threatening
b) patient looses the part of self-portrait, the life ability or a value
c) situation is a challenge
d) situation is benign
a physician who chooses gynecology as a specialization may exhibit one of the following psychological defense mechanisms:
c) acting out
use of antianxiety medication and relaxation are:
a) emotion focused coping
b) somatically focused activities
c) problem - direct coping
Which model describe stress as an automatic response to external stressors?
a) Life events theory (Changes in life)
b) Psychodynamic (Underlying conflict)
c) Fight or flight theory
d) b & c
Alterations in thinking; mood or behavior associated with distress and/or impaired functioning as well as increased mortality rate are specific for:
a) Mental disorders
b) Mental health problems
c) Mental illness
d) High level of sense of coherence
Which theory of personality says that behavior is motivated by powerful inner forces?
a) Humanistic theory
b) Psychodynamic theory
c) Trait theory
d) Libido theory
e) Id theory
According to contemporary psychological knowledge the factor responsible for how students could cope better with day-to-day problem is:
b. vulnerability level
c. level of social support
d. blood sugar level
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