Test One on Chapter 1-4 (Key Terms 1-98)
Terms in this set (99)
Founded Rhode Island (established 1644). He advanced the cause of religious toleration and freedom of thought. He believed that the state was an improper and ineffectual agency in matters of spirit
Struggled with the Massachusetts Bay authorities over religious doctrine and gender roles. She challenged clerical authority and claimed to have had revelations from god. Massachusetts Bay banished Hutchinson to Rhode Island.
Rhode Island 1644
Roger Williams founded this colony when he was expelled from Massachusetts for religious disagreements. Supported the separation of church and state and paying the Indians for their land.
South Carolina 1663
Founded by eight nobles with a royal charter from king Charles I. Tobacco and rice was the main economic income.
James Oglethorpe founded this colony for debtors and other poor settlers. Colonized to protect South Carolina from Indians and Spaniards, Poorer lower class, still agricultural.
The Dutch settled near the Hudson River. The Dutch established the Dutch West India Company to trade beaver furs. Patroon System- New Netherlands political system. A few rich families were given huge tracts of land; They then rented land to at least 50 families. People from all regions and backgrounds were welcome.
Originally New Netherlands, owned by the Dutch. Taken by Charles II (England) in order for the New England and Chesapeake colonies to be connected.
Were pacifists who refused to bear arms. Quakers advocated freedom of worship and accepted a greater role for women in church services. Opposed slavery and were among America's first abolitionists.
1681- William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers. This colony allowed religious freedom.
Middle Colony Economy
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware, good fertile soil, short winters, good growing whether, grew wheat and corn (bread basket colonies).
Middle Colonial Society
Diverse, freedom of religion, commerce, moderate weather, good soil, plains, valleys, cash crop agriculture, grain, wheat and livestock.
A group of restless people who fled their home in Scotland in the 1600s to escape poverty and religious oppression. Moved to Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. These areas are home to many Presbyterian churches established by the Scots-Irish. Many people in these areas are still very independent like their ancestors.
German speaking Protestants who settled in Pennsylvania. Came to PA seeking religious freedom and a better farmland; Amish are their descendants
1637 The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. Basically was a war created over expansion conflicts. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.
King Philip's War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The war was started when the Massachusetts government tried to assert court jurisdiction over the local Indians. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.
In 1676, Bacon, a young planter led a rebellion against people who were friendly to the Indians. In the process he torched Jamestown, Virginia. Exposed tensions between the former indentured servants, who were poor, and the gentry, who were rich. As planters became more suspicious of their former indentured servants, they turned to slaves as more reliable sources of labor.
Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa.
British colonial policy that relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs. It contributed significantly to the rise of American self-government.
Sold into slavery at age 11; after gaining freedom, he spoke out against slavery and published his autobiography.
American Slavery Beginnings
Slave trade expanded after Bacon's rebellion in 1675. Replaced indentured servants who were white and needed for growing tobacco and rice. Cheaper than indentured servants.
Early African American Culture
Culture of Africans was brought over into the colonies from Africa. Was able to maintain most of their culture from Africa because the colonists didn't see their culture as an issue. Obviously adopted some cultural aspects from the colonists.
Bering Strait Land Bridge
The Native Americans used this land form to migrate from Asia to the Americas probably following their food source the woolly mammoth.
Pope's Rebellion 1680
Indians in New Mexico who, under the leadership of Popé, led an effective revolt against the Spanish in 1680. Particularly targeting symbols of Christianity, they succeeded in killing two-thirds of Spanish missionaries and driving the Spaniards out of New Mexico.
Lived in the Southwestern United States. They built extensive irrigation systems to water their primary crop, which was corn. Their houses were multi-storied buildings made of adobe.
A Native American people historically settled in the Southeastern United States (principally Georgia, the Carolinas, and East Tennessee). Their language is an Iroquoian language. They farmed their land and raised cattle.
The most important and powerful Native American Political alliance. An alliance of five northeastern Amerindian people that made decisions on military and diplomatic issues through a council of representatives. Allied first with the Dutch and later with the English, it dominated W. New England. It successfully ended generations of tribal warfare.
Algonquian Indian chief. He was the leader of Powhatan's Confederacy, an alliance of about 30 tribes that were located primarily in eastern Virginia. Often noted for his ruthlessness, he made peace with the colonists after his daughter Pocahontas married Englishman John Rolfe in 1614.
Indian tribe located near Massachusetts. To help ease tension between natives and settlers, John Eliot worked understand the language of the Wampanoag and attempted to convert them to Christianity. Built praying towns for those who converted or were in the process of converting. The Wampanoag chief, Metacom, whom the English called King Philip, became very angry because he was losing control over his people. Also, Massachusetts began spreading into the Wampanoag lang. This began King Philip's War in 1675. This was the bloodiest and most prolonged war between whites and indians. Both sides burned down towns and neither side distinguished between men, women, and children. Puritans saw this war as a result of God withdrawing his blessing. Puritans eventually won.
Lived near the Northwest Coast. Carved totem poles showing characters that were used to tell a story. Fishers and gatherers.
Native American Worldview
Native Americans were animists who believed that the natural world was embedded with spiritual power. Native American conceptions of female power linked them with earth's fertility. Women grew crops and maintained hearth home, and village. For men, spiritual power was invoked in hunting and war. Warfare was thought to be a rite of passage for young men (to allow warriors to prove themselves in battle).
Christopher Columbus 1492
Born Genoa, he is an Italian navigator who was funded by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India.
Primary avenue of trade for West Africans, route across the Sahara desert. Major trade route that traded for gold and salt, created caravan routes, economic benefit for controlling dessert, camels played a huge role in the trading. This is prior to European interaction, where the trade routes will be shifted to the Atlantic.
Spanish Imperial Government
Extreme autocratic control by king & viceroys; no democratic tradition; compare to English salutary neglect
Spanish Imperial Economy
Mercantilist / feudal exploitation (gold & silver, raw materials). Natives Americans and Africans used as slave labor, based on encomiendas.
The Reconquering of Spain by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella when the last Muslim ruler was defeated in 1492 and all non-Catholics were forced to either leave or convert. This unified Spain into a powerful nation-state.
England's dominant economic philosophy during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Its goal for England was to have a favorable balance of trade. To achieve this goal, the colonies were expected to export raw materials and import finished goods. This system led to the subordination of the colonial economy to that of the mother country (England). The Navigation Acts were part of this economic policy.
Spanish Native American Relations
Millions of Native Americans died as a result of conquistadors' methods of warfare, efforts at enslavement, European diseases for which they had no immunity. Spain incorporated the people into an organized empire, intermarried with Indians and Africans. Established a rigid class system dominated by pure-blooded Spaniards
A system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians or to demand their labor in exchange for protecting them and teaching them skills.
The Black Legend
Refers to a style of historical writing or propaganda that demonizes the Conquistadors' and in particular the Spanish Empire in a politically motivated attempt to incite animosity against Spain. The belief that the Spanish only killed, tortured, and stole in the Americas, while contributing nothing good.
Bartolome De Las Casas
A Spanish missionary who reported the abuses of and strongly discouraged enslaving Native Americans for the workforce, and recommended using African slaves instead. By the end of his lifetime he realized that that didn't make a difference, they were being treated the same.
Colombian Exchange 1492
The exchange of foods, plants, animals, and diseases between the Europeans and Native Americans. Native Americans who interacted with the English became increasingly dependent on the fur-and-hide trade. European diseases decimated the Native American population.
St. Augustine 1565
First Spanish settlement in North American. Located in Florida, it is the oldest continual European inhabited settlement.
The Spanish Armada 1588
Defeat of the Spanish by Queen Elizabeth of England. This event marks the fall of Spain as the world power. Confirms Protestantism as the main religion in England.
Church of England
Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and the Pope. The Pope would not let Henry divorce his wife.
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination. Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
The Spanish hoped to find gold and silver. The Spanish claimed this area which was already occupied by the Apache, Pueblo, and Navajo.
A fur-trading post established in 1608, the capital being Quebec, that became the first permanent French settlement in North America. New France fell to the British in 1763.
French Native American Relations
Maintained good relations with the Native American tribes who occupied St. Lawrence Valley and Great Lakes region. Soldiers assisted Huron people in fighting the Iroquois. Built trading posts where they exchanged French goods for Indian furs. Posed little threat to native population because of small size
Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.
Virginia Joint Stock Company
The primary goal was to make a profit. Religious motivation was much less important than in the founding of Maryland, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts.
Located in Virginia, it is the first permanent English colony. Established by John Smith.
Founded Jamestown in 1607. He saved Jamestown by having the remaining 38 (out of 120) survivors work hard for their food.
He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown. He married Pocahontas. He discovered how to successfully grow and cure tobacco in Virginia, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.
House of Burgesses
The first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619. Representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legislative acts. Later, other colonies would adopt similar governing bodies.
Planters in Virginia and Maryland used this system to encourage the importation of indentured servants. Whoever paid the passage of a laborer received 50 acres of land.
A person who agreed to work for a colonial employer for a specified time (five to seven years) in exchange for passage to america. Played a key role in the growth of the tobacco plantation system in Virginia and Maryland. They were the main source of agricultural labor in both of these colonies before 1675 . Bacon's Rebellion in 1676 is the reason why slaves will become the main source of labor.
Wars fought over land between the Indians and the English. The first war: bloody, ended with the marriage of Pocahontas and John Rolfe. The second war: even bloodier, peace treaty signed and the Indians were banished from Virginia.
Maryland Toleration Act 1649
Granted all Christians the right to follow their own religious beliefs and hold church services. This is critical for ending religious conflict in Maryland.
South Colonial Society
Characterized by slave-based plantations (tobacco & rice), hierarchical plantocracy (planter elite, yeomen, mass of landless poor), very little urbanization or infrastructure.
South Colonial Economy
This colonial area had a economy based upon plantations, using slaves to grow cash crops (tobacco, rice, and indigo).
Types of Colonies
Royal colonies were owned by a king (ex: Virginia). Proprietary Colonies were owned by individual (ex: Pennsylvania and Maryland). Corporate Colonies owned by group of citizens (ex: Rhode island).
Came to New England in family groups. Immigrated to what would be the Massachusetts Bay colony for religious freedom. Their leader was John Winthrop. Typically lived in small villages surrounded by farmland. Believed in a close relationship between church and state.
A colony established by the English Pilgrims, or Separatists, in 1620. The Separatists were Puritans who abandoned hope that the Anglican Church could be reformed. Plymouth became part of Massachusetts in 1691.
The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the men on the Mayflower in 1620 and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Native Americans who helped the English colonists (Pilgrims) in Massachusetts develop agricultural techniques and served as an interpreter between the colonists and the Wampanoag.
Puritan Great Migration
The Puritan Great Migration was when more than 20,000 puritans journeyed from England to Massachusetts due to belief that the church of England was beyond reform.
He called on the Puritans to build a model society, which he referred to as "a city upon a hill". Created a model Christian society with a strict code of moral conduct.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.
New England Colonial Society
This was characterized by many small towns organized around a congregational (Puritan) church with a fairly egalitarian distribution of land. A tradition of democratic rule (town hall meetings). Education was believed to be important (very literate area).
New England Colonial Economy
This area had an economy characterized by fishing, shipbuilding, trade, skilled craftsmen and shopkeepers.
Small family farmers who hired out slaves for the harvest season; they were mostly self-sufficient, and participated in local markets alongside slave owners.
A college founded in Massachusetts in 1636 to train Puritan ministers. This was the first college established in Colonial America.
New England Colonial Government
This area established a self-sufficient democratic government, held town meetings.
New England Native American Relations
Uneasy from beginning. Tension/conflict over land and expansion.
Salem Witchcraft Trials
Trials in Salem Massachusetts in 1692 that resulted in the execution of twenty women for witchcraft. This highlights the colonial belief that women were more sinful and susceptible to the devil.
1739 in south carolina, about 100 African slaves seized weapons, killed several whites, and attempted to escape to florida. Whites crushed the uprising and executed most participants. This rebellion showed that slaves were powerless against their masters
In 1661 a set of "codes" was made (mainly for the South). It denied slaves basic fundamental rights, and gave their owners permission to treat them as they saw fit.
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies. Nearly two million Africans died.
An eighteenth-century philosophy stressing that reason and the scientific method could be used to improve the human condition.
Inspired by Petrarch,this branch of humanism emphasized the use of the knowledge contained in the ancient texts to better serve and improve one's own society.
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
An American enlightenment thinker, scientist, and inventor. He called together the Albany Plan of Union during the French and Indian war to unite the colonists against France. He helped to negotiate French support for the American Revolution.
Is the belief that God created a universe that is governed by natural law. These natural laws can be discovered by the use of human reason.
This eased the requirements for church membership by allowing the baptism of the children of baptized but unconverted Puritans.
The First Great Awakening
Took the form of a wave of religious revival that occurred in the colonies during the 1740s. Made up of "New Light" ministers. Promoted the growth of New Light institutions of higher education. Renewed missionary spirit led to the conversion of many African slaves. Led to a greater appreciation for the emotional experiences of faith. Growing religious diversity (Division within Presbyt. and Congregat. churches). An increase in the number of women in church congregations.
American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (New England preacher who helped set off the Great Awakening).
One of the preachers of the great awakening (key figure of "New Light"); he came from England to tour America in 1739. Will help establish the Methodist church. Known for emotional preaching.
Although the imperial wars united the colonists and the British on the battle field, they highlighted the differences between the two cultures and increased friction between the two.
French and Indian War
War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won. The Native Americans aided both the English and the French.
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottawa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
Created in 1749 by Virginia speculators, supported by London merchants. They obtained a royal grant of 20,000 acres of the Ohio Valley. This alarmed the French and the Iroquois and lead to the development of forts.
Proclamation of 1763
Forbade British colonists to cross an imaginary boundary along the crest of the Appalachian Mountains. The primary purpose was to avoid conflict between the trans-Appalachian Indians and British colonists seeking inexpensive land.
Writs of Assistance
Allowed England to search colonists' ships and other private property without an individual warrant.
Sugar Act 1764
British deeply in debt because of the French and Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. Colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
Stamp Act 1765
A tax that the British Parliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies. Purpose was to pay for British soldiers stationed in North America after the French and Indian War. Violence against the tax collectors made it inefficient to collect.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Treaty that ended the French and Indian War. Significance is that it removed the French as a power from North America and England got everything west of the Mississippi along with the French holdings in Canada.
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