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Characteristics of reptile

- reptiles are cold blooded(ectothermic)
- with dry skin; scales
- tetrapods: four legs
- vertebrate, backbone
-lay amniotic eggs
- Have spinal columns and a strong skeletal system with rib cage
-well developed brain and central nervous system
- three chamber hear

subgroups of reptiles

crocodillia, sphenodontia, squamata, testudines

Characteristics of crocodillia

- closely related to birds
- alligators, caimans, gharials, and crocodiles
- ventricle of their heart divided into left and right compartments (like mammals and birds)
- demonstrate parental care for young
- found in tropical and subtropical climates
- can obtain lengths of 27 feet
- females build nest to lay eggs

Characteristics of Spenodontia

- lizard like reptile
- only one living genus (tuatara) and only two living species
- tuatara is found in new zealand

Characteristics squamata

- two sub groups: sauria, composed lizards, Serpentes, composed of snakes.
- sauria have eyelids and are able to regrow portions of their tails
- serpent have no eyelids and are deaf, sensitive to vibrations
- both have loosely connected jaw. able to eat things more easily
- members of Squamata are found in all continents expect for Antarctica


fast sprinters, good climbers, can swim. collared lizard. change color in response to their environments


- consist of turtle and tortoises,
-the shell is a modified ribcage and part of vertebral column, can not be removed
- shell is not an exoskeleton
- oldest reptile group date back 215 million years ago
-cold blooded
- lay eggs on land, live around water or in water
- protection comes from a shell composed of hard, bone plates covered by scutes
- some are herbivores or carnivores


- peurodira side- necked and cryptodira hidden neck.
- live in water (freshwater, saltwater, ocean, or brackish ponds and marshlands)
- front feet might have fins or webbed toes
- flatter back than tortoises
- more often omnivorous


- live completely out of water, wading into streams.
- feet are hard, scaly, and nubby so it can across sharp rocks and sand
- often have claws to dig burrows
- mostly herbivorous
- shell forms a rounded dome, allowing them to withdraw legs and head for protection

Characteristics of birds

- lay eggs
- feathers. two different types. Down= soft and contour= adapted for flight
- beaks
- wing appendages, front limbs modified into wings
- warm blooded, endotherimcs
- two scaly legs, used for walking or perching, grabibing (fish)
- talons
- vertebrates
- sense of direction (internal compass)
- hollow bones

modifications for flight

- highly effcient:
- digestive
- respiratory
-ciculatory systems
- aerodynamic feathers and wings
-strong chest muscles
- can't hold in waste ( no bowl control)
- light bones: structure, hollow

Characteristics of mammals

-warm blooded
- most young are born alive
- they have hair or fur on their bodies
- every mammal is a vertebrate
- mammals produce milk to feed babies
- the lower jaw in mammals is a single bone on either side
- mammals main artery leaving the heart curves to the left becoming the aoritc arch
- mamals have a diaphrgm
- synapsid skulls

subgroups of Mammals

Euthria: are mammals possessing a placenta, like human or dog.
Metatheria: also marsupials or pounch-bearing mammals like the kangaroo
- prototheria: also known as montremes or egg-laying mammals like the duckbill Platpus

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