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Computer Security and Reliability
AP Computer Principles
Terms in this set (28)
One key encrypts, a different key decrypts.
The capacity of data transfer in a system. Measured by bitrate.
The amount of data (in bits) that can be sent in a fixed amount of time.
Scrambling digital information into an unreadable form Only those with verified authority (password, key, etc) can unscramble it to read it.
Distributed Denial of Service attack. Spam a web server with so many requests so close together that it crashes. Sometimes spitting out valuable information as it crashes.
Pretending to be a DNS name resolver. Feed your computer the wrong IP address for a given website, and your browser now goes to a false website.
A system designed to work when components fail.
Domain Name System (DNS)
Used to translate domain names into IP addresses.
A gigabyte (GB) is 2^30 bytes (1024 MB) of binary data.
Hexadecimal number system
Number system that has 16 digits 1 - 9 and A - F.
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol)
Protocol standardizes the language for talking to web servers to send and receive web resources. Defines how computers send and receive hypertext information. (HTTPS: the "S" denotes a secure connection using HTTP.)
Internet Protocol (IP)
A protocol that defines the structure of an internet address and assigns a unique address to every device on the internet.
Throwing away some of the data to save space. We can throw away a lot of data without any noticeable difference from the original.
A megabyte (MB) is 2^20 bytes (1024 kB) of binary data.
A kilobyte (kB) is 2^10 bytes (1024 bytes) of binary data.
The latency of a system is the time it takes for a bit to travel from sender to receiver optic cables have low latency.
a set of data that describes and gives information about other data.
An observation in computer science that the processing speed of computers is doubling every year. This is exponential growth. Computers are getting smaller and faster at an exponential rate.
Moore's law predicts that this trend will continue into the foreseeable future. Although the pace has slowed, the number of transistors per square inch has since doubled approximately every 18 months. This is used as the current definition of Moore's law.
All data sent over the internet is broken down into several packets. Packets are the units of data that are sent over the network. Packets are labeled with metadata and each packet is sent individually with its own packet number. If they arrive out of order, the number allows them to be pieces back together. Once the packets arrive, they are pieced back together. The layout of a packet is defined by a protocol.
the fraudulent practice of sending emails purporting to be from reputable companies in order to induce individuals to reveal personal information, such as passwords and credit card numbers
Images are made up of pixels, which are essentially a grid of values. Each value, or pixel, encodes the color at that position in the image.
A set of rules or procedures for transmitting data between electronic devices. In order for computers to exchange information, there must be an agreement as to how the information will be structured and how each side will send and receive it.
Public Key Encryption
Public key encryption is a type of asymmetric key encryption. There's one key that encrypts the information and there is a different key that decrypts the information.
WannaCry Example:A 2017 worldwide cyberattack by the WannaCry ransomware cryptoworm, which targeted computers running older Microsoft Windows operating systems. WannaCry encrypted data and demanding ransom payments in Bitcoin to decrypt files. Microsoft had released patches previously to close the exploit, but all of the systems that were attacked had not installed the update that would close the exploit.
The attack was stopped within a few days of its discovery due to emergency patches released by Microsoft. The attack was estimated to have affected more than 200,000 computers across 150 countries, with total damages ranging from hundreds of millions to billions of dollars.
The process of sending data between two computers on the internet. The data is sent through routers that determine the route.
The same key is used to encrypt and decrypt (e.g., Caesar, Vigenere)
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
Allows for sending MULTIPLE packets between two computers. TCP checks that all packets arrived and can be put back in the proper order. The metadata must include a destination IP address, a from IP address, the message size and the packet order number.
a weakness which can be exploited by a malicious actor / attacker to perform unauthorized actions within a computer system.
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