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AP Human Geo Study-Notes unit 5 + extra need to know definitions
AP Human Geography Study guide notes
Terms in this set (128)
refers to how minorities and the poor are harmed the most by environmental pollutionterm-104
First Agricultural Revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication earlier were all hunters
Highly mechanized, large-scale farming, usually under corporate ownership
The cultivation of domesticated crops and the raising of domesticated animals
The cultivation of aquatic organisms (as fish or shellfish) especially for food
Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use
The unique way in which each culture uses its particular physical environment; those aspects of culture that serve to provide the necessities of life- food, clothing, shelter, and defense.
A government owned farm managed by workers who share the profits from their produce (net worth of the farm)
Commercial agriculture (intensive, extensive)
Term used to describe large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory-type labor forces, and the latest technology
Expenditure of much labor and capital on a piece of land to increase its productivity (mostly larege scale farms)
Use of little labor and capital to increase agricultural productivity (mostly small scale farms)
A sequential process used by firms to gather resources, transform them into goods or commodities and finally distribute them to customers
The mass production of farm products that lower the prices, which lowers the profits for farmers. This had led to a decrease in small farms.
The system of growing a different plants in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land, in other words, the practice of switching to different fields from plant to plant each year, to avoid exhausting the soil
An agricultural activity involving the raising of livestock, most commonly cows and goats, for dairy products such as milk, cheese, and butter.
Domestication Hearths for Plants and Animals
A part of the world where plant or animal domestication occurs on a large scale
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
The raising of livestock for food by moving herds from place to place to find pasture and water
Application of synthetic fertilizers (and herbicides, fungicides, and pesticides to crops)to the soil in order to enhance yields
Chemicals used on plants that do not harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species who ingest the chemicals.
A chemical that kills plants. They are sprayed on unwanted plants that compete with food crops such as wheat, oats, rice, and barley for nutrients from the soil.
Any substance such as manure or a mixture of nitrates used to make the soil more fertile and plants grow better
Movement of soil components, especially topsoil, from one place to another, usually by wind, flowing water, or both. This natural process can be greatly accelerated by human activities that remove vegetation from the soil.
Second Agricultural Revolution
Tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
Second Industrial Revolution
Steel, chemicals, electricity. This is the name for the new wave of more heavy industrialization starting around the 1860s. it developed new ways of transportation and ways to farm. ex of things developed - plows, roads, free-market/capitalism
A movement in England during the 1600s and 1700s in which the government took public lands and sold them off to private landowners--contributing to a population shift toward the cities and a rise in agricultural productivity. (private property rights, you own your land)
Third Agricultural Revolution
Currently, in progress, the Third Agricultural Revolution has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
Farming that provides for the basic needs of the farmer without surpluses for marketing. usually near densly populated areas with access to local markets (extensive)
The large-scale production of crops for sale (intensive) usually around urban city centers. ex- truck farming, dairy farming, etc
Growing the same crop on the same field year after year during the same season
Farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single crop, year after year
Bid Rent Theory
Geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases. (The amount of land available makes it more in demand in a city with limited land and less in demand in a country side with lots of land available.)
Von Thunen Model
An agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent. Activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be close to the market. Conversely, activities that are more extensive, with goods that are easy to transport, are located farther from the market where rent is less. there are four rings, dairy farming, forests, grains and field crops, and ranching and livestock. Anything further than that is wilderness.
More expensive near cities cheaper the further away from the city you get. If land costs little, they use it extensively. If the land is scarce or expensive they use it intensively
Employees are expensive to pay however often, immigrant labor (illegal or not) is a way to decrease labor costs and pay minimum wage.
Everything your business needs to survive that costs money (an investment for your farm)
examples - seeds, tools, water, machinery, etc.
Econemy of Scale
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation, with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale. Where the most efficient number of firms is in one Specialisation ex- car production.
The introduction of man made chemicals and practices that, at times, have drastic effects on native soil and vegatation.
The use of natural substances rather than chemical fertilizers and pesticides to enrich the soil and grow crops
Fourth Agricultural Revolution
Food is both grown and sold locally, and fertalizers and pesticides are minimized or eliminated in favor of pure organic farming. also organic and sustainable agriculture, GMOs, robots and automation thrive
Geographer from the University of California at Bed defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental un graphical analysis. This landscape results from interaction betwee and the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no land escaped alteration by human activities.
The agricultural harth of agriculture. Through time nomadic people noticed the growing of plants in a cycle and began to domesticate them and use for there own use. Carl Sauer points out vegetative planting and seed agriculture as the original forms. He also points out that vegetative planting likely was originated in SE Asia and seed agriculture originated in W. India, N. China and Ethiopia. Without the development of agriculture we would still have a relatively small and likely uneducated population.
Reproduction of plants through annual planting of seeds that result from sexual fertilization
Regions in which large amounts of agriculture take place
The removal of trees faster than forests can replace themselves.
A farming system that is in the form of steps going up a mountain
Spatial Organization of Agriculture
The location of places, people, and events, and the connections among the places and landscapes.
Agricultural revolution that increased production through improved seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation; helped to support rising Asian populations.
evolved from nomadic life to settle farm life, established permanent villages, tamed animals, growing population, role of men and women changed, food supplies led to population growth, city governments developed [bureaucracy]
Challenges in Contemporary Agriculture
Agriculture innovations such as biotechnology, genetically modified organisms, and aquaculture have been accompanied by debates over sustainability, soil and water usage, reductions in biodiversity, and extensive fertilizer and pesticide use. (AKA the challenges they have are - Degradation, Biodiversity Decline, Climate Change, Hunger / Poverty, Food-Related Diseases
CBD (Central Business District)
The downtown heart of a central city, marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce and the clustering of the tallest buildings (it is not the drug)
Movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions
The movement of people out of urban areas to escape over crowding, pollution, and economic disadvantages. (AKA rual migration)
How Does Ranching Impact The Enviorment, What Can We Do To Stop It.
Impacts the environment through antibiotics, land coverage, and global warming. Plant based meat and cell growth meat have the same taste texture and features as real meat and are the better options to ranching. they are cheaper and indistinguishable from real meat.
Global Supply Chain
The firm's integrated network of sourcing, production, and distribution, organized on a worldwide scale and located in countries where competitive advantage can be maximized
Resistance evolving rapidly in many species of prokaryotes due to overuse of antibiotics, especially in agriculture. (Live Stock)
2050 Global Food Crises
We need 70% more food production for the oncoming 2050 population of 9 billion plus. Ranching requires too much land and crops to do that while cropping reqires way less.
big macs needed to feed 2027
To feed the 2027 population we need 379 billion more big macs, (2700 cals per big mac) more then mcdonalds has sold ever.
"going from a full state to a lesser state": Ms Nicoll.
economies of scale resulting from the concentration of people and production in urban areas
break - of - bulk point
A location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another. In a port, the cargoes of oceangoing ships are unloaded and put on trains, trucks, or perhaps smaller riverboats for inland distribution.
bulk gaining industry
An industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume than the inputs.
bulk reducing industry
An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
Illegal practice of inducing homeowners to sell their properties by telling them that a certain people of a certain race, national origin or religion are moving into the area
the ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer
another name for squatter settlements that are residential developments that take place on land that is neither owned nor is rented by its occupants
the ratio of output to input for a given carrier
when 2 regions specifically satisfy each other's needs through the exchange of raw materials and or finished goods
regions that dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies and have high levels of productivity within diversified economics
Areas that are popular locations for recreational properties such as cottages or summer homes
An area delineated by the US Bureau of the census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
Burgess Central Model
1. CBD, 2. Zone of Transition, 3. Zone of Independent Workers (blue-collar), 4. Zone of better Residents (Middle Class), 5. Commuter's Zone, 6. Dynamic Model
Hoyt Sector Model
Focuses on residential patterns explaining where the wealthy in a city choose to live. He argued that the city grows outward from the center, so a low-rent area could extend all the way from the CBD to the city's outer edge, creating zones that are shaped like pieces of a pie.
Harris and Ullman
developed multiple nuclei model explaining that large cities developed by spreading from several places of growth, not just one
Bid Rent Theroy Graph
A geographical economic theory that refers to price and demand for real estate change as the distance from the CBD increases.
Concentric Zone Model
A structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center.
Southeast Asian City Model
McGee model. The focal point of the city is the colonial port zone combined with the large commercial district that surrounds it. McGee found no formal CBD but found separate clusters of elements of the CBD surrounding the port zone: the government zone, the Western commercial zone, the alien commercial zone, and the mixed land-use zone with misc. economic activities.
An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land
rapid population growth in megacities
A megacity is an urban agglomeration (accumulation) with more than 10 million inhabitants. ... Today, the most rapid megacity growth is occurring in the world's least developed and poorest countries—those least able to handle the political, social, economic and environmental problems associated with rapid urbanization. https://blog.nationalgeographic.org/2014/02/17/geography-in-the-news-the-growth-of-megacities/
Urban Land Use
a simplified model of land use (such as industry, housing, and commercial activity) that may be found in towns and cities.
An urban area is a region surrounding a city. Most inhabitants of urban areas have nonagricultural jobs. Urban areas are very developed, meaning there is a density of human structures such as houses, commercial buildings, roads, bridges, and railways. "Urban area" can refer to towns, cities, and suburbs
Models of Urban Structure
3 models-- concentric zone, sector, and multiple nuclei models; developed in Chicago; Chicago includes CBD loop because transportation lines, surrounding loop are residential suburbs to south, west, and north
The practice of classifying areas for different types of development and land use
Transportation, communication, pipes, and power.
industrial, agricultural, commercial, residential.
Open Street Map (OSM)
A project aimed squarely at creating and providing free geographic data such as street maps to anyone who wants them
Against abortion, pro taxes, pro-death penalty, tend to oppose gay marriage, right to bear arms, keep minimum wage, etc.
federal gov. should be more directly involved in American lives, like the economy, income, housing, education, and jobs for the poor.
A tax levied on companies that participate in activities or produce products that are harmful to the environment. (they don't stop you they charge you.)
The total carbon dioxide emissions produced by an individual, group, or location.
The overall level of comfort, access, enjoyment, and connectivity of an area that facilitates walking
A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area. (by aking this a sustainable community it will cost more. those that are lower-income can't afford to live there. Lots of accidental segregation due to old policies and defaults.)
The exponential growth in the volume, variety, and velocity of information and the development of complex, new tools to analyze and create meaning from such data
Relating to, measuring, or measured by the quantity of something rather than its quality. measured by numbers can be counted related to numbers or two answer possibilities. (ex: questionnaires, temps and precip, databases) the magic word is count
relating to, measuring, or measured by the quality of something rather than its quantity. measured by describing, cannot be counted, related to words and feelings (five senses). (ex: documents, surveys, case studies, memos) the magic word is Inference
A discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominantly white neighborhoods. The practice derived its name from the red lines depicted on cadastral maps used by real estate agents and developers. Today, redlining is officially illegal.
(banks drew lines on a map and refused to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.)
Reserch Must Fulfil
Validity, objectivity, reliability, accuracy, and precision
Accuracy of a given result in measuring what it is designed to measure
Treating facts without influence from personal feelings or prejudices
The consistency of measurement
A description of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity measured.
The degree to which repeated measurements show the same result.
The ILLEGAL practice of denying an individual or group the right to buy or rent a home based on race, color, religion, national origin, sex, disability or family status.
How property rights to land are allocated within societies, including how permissions are granted to access, use, control, and transfer land.
Specifies inclusions within a development, such as a playground or that a percentage of homes must be affordable for low-income families.
Local food movement
Purchasing food from nearby farms because you want to minimize the pollution created from the transportation of food around the world
Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
Geographic Fragmentation of government
This refers to the absence or underdevelopment of connections between the society and groupings of some members of that society on the lines of a common culture, nationality, race, language, etc.
Zones of Abandonment
areas that have been deserted in a city for economic or environmental reasons
Christaller's Central Place Theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
The situation in which less developed countries use newer technology without first using the precursor technology.
Quaternary economic activity
Service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital. Examples include finance, administration, insurance, and legal services.
language that is structured according to more or less, higher or lower
a crop produced for its commercial value rather than for use by the grower.
a technique of growing plants (without soil) in water containing dissolved nutrients
a person who does not eat meat but does eat fish.
swidden agriculture (slash and burn)
The form of subsistence agriculture in which crops are grown in different fields on a rotating basis. Also called shifting agriculture or slash-and-burn agriculture
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
the formal act of acquiring something (especially territory) by conquest or occupation
the policy or practice of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers, and exploiting it economically.
a process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupancy to abandonment
the largest metropolitan area in the world
The Order for Types of Communities (Least to Greatest.)
A hamlet is a community of people smaller than a village. A village is a community of people smaller than a town but larger than a hamlet. A town is a political unit that is larger than a village and smaller than a city. A city is a conglomeration of people and buildings clustered together to serve as a center of politics, culture, and economics. cities are larger than towns but smaller than Megalopolises. A megalopolis is a very large, heavily populated city or urban complex. it is the biggest form of a community.
distinct sizable nodal concentration of retail and office space of lower than central city densities and situated on the outer fringes of older metropolitan areas; usually localized by or near major highway intersections
An invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory
United States Map
A Map of the United States
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