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Associative (grouping) Property

the order in which you add or multiply THREE OR MORE numbers does not change the outcome. Example: a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c

Common Factor

a number that is a factor of two or more numbers

Commutative (order) Property

the order in which you add or multiply two numbers does not change the outcome. Example: a**b=b**a

Composite Number

a whole number that is exactly divisible by more than two factors

Congruent

figures that have the same size and shape

Denominator

the part of a fraction below the line, which tells how many equal parts there are in the whole

Difference

the result of subtraction

Distributive Property

the product of a number and the sum of two numbers is equal to the sum of the two products. Example: a**(b+c) = (a**b)+(a*c)

Divisible

when you divide, the remainder is zero

Equivalent

equal in value, but in a different form

Equivalent Fractions

two or more fractions that represent the same number

Estimate

to find an answer that is close to the exact answer

Expanded Form

a way to write numbers that shows the value of each digit

Exponent

a number that indicates how many times the base appears as a factor

Exponential Form

a symbolic way of showing how many times a number is used as a factor

Factor

one of two or more numbers or expressions that are multiplied to form a product

Fraction

a number used to name a part of the group or part of a whole

Greatest Common Factor (GCF)

the greatest number that divides evenly into two or more numbers

Improper Fraction

a fraction with its numerator equal to or greater than its denominator

Integers

the set of numbers containing zero, the natural numbers, and their opposites

Leading Digit

the digit farthest to the left, having the greatest value

Least Common Multiple (LCM)

the smallest number that is a common multiple of two or more numbers

Like Fractions

fractions that have the same denominator

Lowest Terms (or Simplest Form)

when the numerator and denominator of a fraction have no common factors other than 1

Mean

average; calculated by dividing the number of items in a set by the sum of those numbers

Median

the MIDDLE number when the data is ordered from least to greatest

Mixed Number

a number written as a whole number and a fraction

Mode

the number(s) that occurs the MOST in a set of data

Multiple

the product of that number and any whole number

Natural Numbers

the counting numbers

Number Line

a line with equal distances marked off to represent numbers

Numerator

the number written above the fraction line that tells how many equal parts of the whole are being counted

Place Value

a system of numeration in which the value of a digit depends on its position in the numeral

Prime Factorization

expressing a composite number as the product of its prime factors

Prime Number

a whole number greater than one that has only two factors, 1 and itself

Product

the result of multiplication

Proper Fraction

a fraction whose numerator is less than its denominator

Quotient

the result of division

Range

the difference between the greatest number and the least numbers in a set of data

Ratio

a comparison of two numbers using division

Round

to estimate a number by replacing it with a number expressed to the nearest ten, hundred, thousand, and so on

Simplify

to divide the numerator and denominator of a fraction by the greatest common factor

Standard Form

a number written with one digit for each place value

Sum

the result of addition

Term

each number in a sequence or pattern

Unlike Fractions

fractions that have different denominators

Variable

a symbol such as a box or a letter used to represent an unknown value

Whole Numbers

set of natural numbers and zero

Rational Numbers

set of all numbers that can be written as the ratio of two integers with a non-zero denominator

Real Numbers

set of all rational and irrational numbers

Irrational Numbers

set of all numbers that cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers

Perimeter

the distance around a figure

Area

the number of square units needed to cover a figure

Volume

the amount of cubic units needed to fill a three-dimensional object

Surface Area

the sum of the area of all faces of an object

Complementary Angles

two angles whose sum is equal to 90 degrees

Supplementary Angles

two angles whose sum is equal to 180 degrees

Vertical Angles

two angles opposite one another that share a vertex

Adjacent Angles

angles that share a common side and a common vertex

Similar Figures

two figures where the corresponding angles are congruent and the corresponding sides are proportional

Congruent Figures

figures that are exactly the same shape and size

Pythagorean Theorem

the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the square of the other two sides

Equation

a mathematical sentence stating that two expressions are equal

Independent Variable

the input (x) values or domain

Dependent Variable

the output (y) values or range