Moving with Math Books 1 & 2 - VOCABULARY

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Associative (grouping) Property

the order in which you add or multiply THREE OR MORE numbers does not change the outcome. Example: a+(b+c)=(a+b)+c

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Common Factor

a number that is a factor of two or more numbers

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Commutative (order) Property

the order in which you add or multiply two numbers does not change the outcome. Example: a**b=b**a

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Composite Number

a whole number that is exactly divisible by more than two factors

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Congruent

figures that have the same size and shape

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Denominator

the part of a fraction below the line, which tells how many equal parts there are in the whole

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Difference

the result of subtraction

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Distributive Property

the product of a number and the sum of two numbers is equal to the sum of the two products. Example: a**(b+c) = (a**b)+(a*c)

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Divisible

when you divide, the remainder is zero

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Equivalent

equal in value, but in a different form

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Equivalent Fractions

two or more fractions that represent the same number

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Estimate

to find an answer that is close to the exact answer

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Expanded Form

a way to write numbers that shows the value of each digit

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Exponent

a number that indicates how many times the base appears as a factor

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Exponential Form

a symbolic way of showing how many times a number is used as a factor

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Factor

one of two or more numbers or expressions that are multiplied to form a product

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Fraction

a number used to name a part of the group or part of a whole

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Greatest Common Factor (GCF)

the greatest number that divides evenly into two or more numbers

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Improper Fraction

a fraction with its numerator equal to or greater than its denominator

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Integers

the set of numbers containing zero, the natural numbers, and their opposites

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Leading Digit

the digit farthest to the left, having the greatest value

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Least Common Multiple (LCM)

the smallest number that is a common multiple of two or more numbers

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Like Fractions

fractions that have the same denominator

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Lowest Terms (or Simplest Form)

when the numerator and denominator of a fraction have no common factors other than 1

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Mean

average; calculated by dividing the number of items in a set by the sum of those numbers

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Median

the MIDDLE number when the data is ordered from least to greatest

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Mixed Number

a number written as a whole number and a fraction

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Mode

the number(s) that occurs the MOST in a set of data

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Multiple

the product of that number and any whole number

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Natural Numbers

the counting numbers

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Number Line

a line with equal distances marked off to represent numbers

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Numerator

the number written above the fraction line that tells how many equal parts of the whole are being counted

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Place Value

a system of numeration in which the value of a digit depends on its position in the numeral

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Prime Factorization

expressing a composite number as the product of its prime factors

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Prime Number

a whole number greater than one that has only two factors, 1 and itself

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Product

the result of multiplication

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Proper Fraction

a fraction whose numerator is less than its denominator

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Quotient

the result of division

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Range

the difference between the greatest number and the least numbers in a set of data

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Ratio

a comparison of two numbers using division

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Round

to estimate a number by replacing it with a number expressed to the nearest ten, hundred, thousand, and so on

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Simplify

to divide the numerator and denominator of a fraction by the greatest common factor

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Standard Form

a number written with one digit for each place value

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Sum

the result of addition

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Term

each number in a sequence or pattern

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Unlike Fractions

fractions that have different denominators

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Variable

a symbol such as a box or a letter used to represent an unknown value

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Whole Numbers

set of natural numbers and zero

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Rational Numbers

set of all numbers that can be written as the ratio of two integers with a non-zero denominator

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Real Numbers

set of all rational and irrational numbers

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Irrational Numbers

set of all numbers that cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers

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Perimeter

the distance around a figure

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Area

the number of square units needed to cover a figure

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Volume

the amount of cubic units needed to fill a three-dimensional object

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Surface Area

the sum of the area of all faces of an object

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Complementary Angles

two angles whose sum is equal to 90 degrees

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Supplementary Angles

two angles whose sum is equal to 180 degrees

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Vertical Angles

two angles opposite one another that share a vertex

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Adjacent Angles

angles that share a common side and a common vertex

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Similar Figures

two figures where the corresponding angles are congruent and the corresponding sides are proportional

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Congruent Figures

figures that are exactly the same shape and size

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Pythagorean Theorem

the square of the hypotenuse of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the square of the other two sides

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Equation

a mathematical sentence stating that two expressions are equal

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Independent Variable

the input (x) values or domain

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Dependent Variable

the output (y) values or range