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Unit 4 Bio Honors Dempsey
Terms in this set (72)
Adenine and ribose
3 phosphate groups
Phosphate bonds are
Resulting molecule ATP reaction
ADP (Adenosine diphosphate)
During a chemical reaction that b breaks 1 ATP's bonds,
the phosphate group is transferred from ATP to another molecule
3 types of cell work
Chemical-(Building large molecules like protein)
Mechanical- (Contraction of a muscle)
Transport-(pumping solutes such as ions across a cell membrane)
This is the name applied to the cycle by which ATP are broken down to ADP with the release of energy, and the regeneration of ATP from ADP through the process of phosphorylation.
the process of converting the energy from the sun into high energy organic molecules
Formula for photosynthesis
6H₂O + 6CO₂ + Light Energy → C₆H₁₂O₆+ 6O₂
Additional requirements for photosynthesis
Chlorophyll (found in the thylakoid membranes), ADP, NADP+'
Photosynthesis occurs in 2 stages
1. Light dependent reactions
2. Calvin Cycle
Light dependent reactions
Happen in thylakoid membrane
Water is split, forming O2
Energy is absorbed and temporarily stored in ATP and NADPH
Happens in the stroma
Energy stored in ATP and NADPH combines with CO2, eventually forming high energy molecules like sugar.
Calvin cycle products
living component (plants, animals, air)
a forest, ocean, or other natural environment viewed in terms of its ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Destruction of forests
What adds carbon to the atmosphere?
Burning of fossil fuels
When was most of the coal in N.A formed?
Carboniferous Period (360-299 million years ago)
formed over millions of years through the process of photosynthesis reducing the co2 in the atmosphere
Natural situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere by carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other gases
Splits sugars apart into sugars apart into 2 sugars= pyruvate
aerobic cellular respiration
generates a little ATP
In glycolysis, hydrogen is a source of
In glycolysis, How many ATP are made per glucose?
where are hydrogens from glucose carried to in glycolysis?
Electron transport chain
pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions
In the Krebs cycle, how many ATP are made per remnant sugar (acetic acid)?
In the Krebs Cycle, what is carried into the electron transport chain?
Hydrogens from the acetic acids
electron transport chain
series of electron carrier proteins that shuttle high-energy electrons during ATP-generating reactions
In the electron transport chain,
1.Hydrogens are split into electrons and H+ ions
2.Electrons power pumps to actively transport H+ ions to 1 side of a membrane
3. H+ ions flow through ATP Synthase to make 34 ATP
Anaerobic respiration (aka fermentation )occurs when
O2 is not available to cells
Only 2 ATP are made in anaerobic respiration instead of
What is added to pyruvate to make lactate or ethanol?
fluid portion of the chloroplast; outside of the thylakoids
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
stack of thylakoids
Large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP
Process of breathing
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood surrounded by capillaries
Airways in the lungs that lead from the bronchi to the alveoli.
Large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing
the act of taking in air as the diaphragm contracts and pulls downward
The passive part of the breathing process in which the diaphragm relaxes, forcing air out of the lungs.
Bundle of muscle cells
Contractile unit of muscle
A protein present in muscle fibers that aids in contraction and makes up the majority of muscle fiber
Actin is a spherical protein that forms filaments, which are involved in muscle contraction and other important cellular processes
the three-carbon compound that is produced during glycolysis and needed for both the aerobic and anaerobic pathways of cellular respiration that follow glycolysis
How many ATP are made in the electron transport chain?
What kind of respiration is Lactic acid fermentation?
Identify during which process each reactant and product is used/produced during cellular respiration.
Glucose is split into pyruvate during glycolysis.
Pyruvate from glycolysis is broken down during the Krebs cycle.
CO2 is produced during the Krebs cycle
O2 is used during ETC
Water and ATP are produced during ETC
You are being chased by a bear. You sprint as hard as you can for 600 meters until you get to a car where you are safe. Which of the metabolism pathways above is happening in your muscles? What types of cells undergo the other pathway?
1.Your muscles will undergo Lactate Fermentation.
2.Yeast undergoes Alcoholic Fermentation.
When must fermentation occur?
What is the purpose of fermentation?
Fermentation occurs when oxygen is not available (anaerobic). It ensures that NAD+ is available for glycolysis to occur, which produces 2 ATP.
Plants can make sugars (ex. glucose and fructose) via photosynthesis. They will convert these monosaccharides into sucrose (a disaccharide) which is the main sugar in plant sap. Explain how they use ATP to do this.
ATP is broken down to ADP and a phosphate as the reactive phosphate on glucose helps it react with fructose to make sucrose.
Can you propose how humans use ATP?
A few examples - muscle and nerve activity, cell division, active transport in a cell, etc.
What process leads to the formation of ATP?
A) Cell Respiration.
C) Releasing heat.
D) Forming carbohydrates.
Which terms best describe ATP?
A) Low Potential Energy - unstable
B) High Potential Energy - unstable
C) Low Potential Energy - stable
D) High Potential Energy - stable
Which of the molecules (ATP or ADP) has more potential energy?
How could you reverse this reaction?
ATP has more potential energy. If you break down sugar, that would provide adequate energy to reverse this reaction (and make ATP).
How does the structure of the thylakoid membrane facilitate the light reactions?
The membrane houses the various membrane proteins that make up an electron transport chain. This chain results in the formation of NADPH and ATP.
What major events occur during the light reactions?
Light reactions- energy from sun absorbed by chlorophyll, exciting electrons. Water is split, producing H+ and oxygen gas. H+ are used to produce NADPH and ATP, which carry energy to calvin cycle.
Calvin cycle- Energy and hydrogen from light reactions are combined with carbon dioxide, producing high energy macromolecules (like glucose)
Identify during which process each reactant and product is used/produced during photosynthesis.
CO2- used, calvin cycle
Water- used, light reactions
Glucose- produced, calvin cycle
O2 -produced, light reactions
How does the energy from the light reactions arrive at the Calvin cycle?
Energy from the sun excites electrons.
What happens to the energy from the light reactions that arrive at the Calvin cycle?
This energy is temporarily stored in ATP and NADPH. That energy is then transferred into the bonds of glucose.
Rewrite the following phrase to be more accurate:
"Photosynthesizers can be called producers because they make glucose using water, light and CO2."
Photosynthesizers can be called producers because they make carbon chains that can be used to make many organic molecules using water, light and CO2.
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