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History chapter 21 vocab
Terms in this set (136)
a person who advocates thorough or complete political or social reform
people who oppose all forms of organized government
People who believe industries should be publicly owned
people who favor the equal distribution of wealth and the end of all forms of private property
A person who believes government power, particularly in the economy, should be limited in order to maximize individual freedom.
strongly opposed to change; conservative
open to new behavior or opinions and willing to discard traditional values.
Intense fear of communism and other politically radical ideas, sparked by Bolshevik Revolution
Seattle General Strike
1919, most famous general strike in U.S. history. shipyard workers wanted wage increase. it was a peaceful strike that moved on to the AFL and IWW. The mayor called for federal troops claiming it was a Bolshevik uprising.
Boston Police Strike
the police force went on strike after not receiving a wage increase for 6 years, and they wanted the right to unionize. Coolidge calls for the national guard and replaces the police force with national guard and veterans.
Great Steel Strike
September 1919: the steel workers wanted 8hr work day, 6 day work week, union representation (AFL to represent). the chairman Judge Gary refused to meet with them. very violent, ended in jan 1920.
United Mine Workers Strike
Led by John Lewis, they demanded shorter hours and higher wages. AG Palmer got injunctions and union called off the strike. President Wilson used WWI legislation that prohibited strikes in war so stop it. they were later awarded a wage increase.
led the United Mine Workers but suffered setbacks in a series of violent and unsucessful strikes in PA, WV, and Kentucky.
A series of raids by US government agents in 1919 and 1920 to find, arrest, and sometimes deport people considered to be dangerous radicals
Sacco and Vanzetti
arrested in 1920 for robbery and murder of a paymaster and a guard for a shoe factory in MA. They were executed in 1927. Showed that foreigners with radical ideas included court, motions for a new trial were denied.
Klu Klux Klan
revived in the 1920's as a defender of prohibition and opponent of blacks, jews, catholics, immigrants. believed in white supremacy, extreme Pro WASP values, ultra conservative and racist
Birth of a Nation
film by D.W. Griffith which praises the KKK, responsible for the Klans resurgence (1915 movie)
1921 Immigration Act
set quotas for the numbers of immigrants who could enter the United States, ended open immigration (based on the 1910 census)
1924 National Origins Act
a discriminatory law that limited Eastern and Southern European immigration (most came from after 1890) Caused a huge decrease in immigrants from those areas, Asians were banned completely, but Canadians and latinos were not affected
New technology during the 1920s
Electric power, electric motors, assembly line, radio, movie
1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools
Immigration Act of 1929
Used 1920 quota as base, virtually cut immigration in half. By 1931, more foreigners left than arrived.
John T. Scopes
an educator in Tennessee who was arrested for teaching evolution to his high school class. the ACLU represented him.
American Civil Liberties Union
An organization formed during the Red Scare to protect free speech rights.
Defended John Scopes during the Scopes Trial. Best known lawyer and took the side of the ACLU. He argued that evolution should be taught in schools.
William Jennings Bryan
in the scopes trial, represented the fundamentalists and he testified as an expert on the Bible
Prohibition of alcohol (only banned manufacturing, not possession.)
sought to banish alcohol by law in the 1910's. male dominated league had a solid financial base, helped by Rockefeller, relied on professional experts. supported candidates who supported prohibition ("dry").
sponsored by Andrew Volstead, banned hard liquor, wine, and beer. It only banned manufatcuring, not possession., enforced prohibition
Most powerful gangster of the 1920s in Chicago. United States gangster who took over Colosimo's alcohol business and controlled the police force, political leadership, and Chicago courts. Began a bootlegging buisness, jailed for tax evasion and died in prison.
Frederick W. Taylor
Came up with new idea of the assembly line. Taylor developed more efficient working methods to increase productivity and increased profits.
1914, perfected a system for manufacturing cars by means of an assembly line. Perfect example of using the assembly line. the workers could now stand in same place and get it done in rapid speed. Anti Semitic and liked hitler.
Invented the airplane
1927, thrilled the world by flying nonstop across the Atlantic from Long Island to Paris. was welcomed back to US with big parades.
first woman aviator to fly solo nonstop across the Atlantic (1928)
Italian electrical engineer who invented the radio, impacted US by advertising, sports, politics, newscasts, music
Babe Ruth and Patrick dempsey
Who became famous through image making of advertising?
The jazz singer
the first movie with sound synchronized to the action
Dr. Sigmund Freud
austrian psychologist who influenced many with his writings that stressed the role of sexual representation in mental illness.
in 1921, she founded the American Birth Control League, and opened up a clinic. It eventually turns into Planned Parenthood with her and the honorary chair. she advocated eugenics.
A new African American cultural awareness that flourished in literature, art, and music in the 1920s. this was defined in Alain Locke's book "The New Negro". There were poets and musicians who expressed a range of emotions. They created a new sound of music, jazz. Expressed themselves in writing, poems, music.
Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance; he was a talented trumpeter whose style influenced many later musicians.
established the Universal Negro Improvement and Conservation Association and African Communities League in Jamaica in 1914.
Marcus Garvey's message
reject white integration, and focus on self help, self determination, and African nationalism.
The lost generation
Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe
F. Scott Fitzgerald
dropped out of Princeton and wrote "the side of paradise" (1920) and "the Great Gatsby" (1925). describes the 1920s as the Jazz Age.
Lost Generation writer, spent much of his life in France, Spain, and Cuba during WWI, notable works include A Farewell to Arms
A writer apart of "the lost generation"
Published "Main Street" in 1920 and "Babbitt" in 1922 which looked at the stifling conformity and hypocrisy of small town America.
A writer apart of "the lost generation"
T. S. Eliot
one of the 'lost generation' writers who expressed his unhappiness by going into exile in Europe
Warren G. Harding
president who called for a return to normalcy following WWI
Ran in the 1920 election as a democrat with Roosevelt against Harding and Coolidge
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Ran in the 1920 election with Cox as a democrat against Harding and Coolidge
Teapot Dome Scandal
A government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921. sec of interior: Fall, leased these reserves to make a profit.
appointed to secretary of treasury under Harding, cut government spending, cut taxes, and retired half of Americas WWI debt. "Trickle down economics" lowered national debt and taxes for the wealthy.
secretary of commerce for Coolidge and Harding who directed rescue efforts in 1921 when there was a flood. most liberal in cabinet, favored prohibition, protestant quaker, won the 1928 election.
passed in 1922 and increased the duties on foreign manufactured goods by 25%. protective of US business interests in the short run but destructive in long run.
organizations offering technical and general assistance to entrepreneurs in a specific profession or industry
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
Declared unconstitutional a minimum wage law for women on the grounds that it denied women freedom of contract.
Bureau of the budget
Created in 1921, its primary task is to prepare the Annual Budget for presentation every January. It also controls the administration of the budget, improving it and encouraging government efficiency.
Became president when Harding died of pneumonia. And he won again in 1924. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.
the federal government would set a minimum price for farm products and buy them when price fell. they would then store the goods until processionals rose. Coolidge vetoed.
Election of 1924
With Republican Coolidge running against Democrat Davis and Progressive LaFollette, the liberal vote was split between the Democrat and the Progressive, allowing Coolidge to win.
The roaring 20's
Society was more accepting of change, advertising came about, women changes in fashion. "Change over time"
Who had high unemployment rates?
Blacks and women who worked during war
Who did those who find jobs take them away from?
Farm prices fell, farmers became in debt, borrowed too much Money and couldn't pay it back (leads to bank failure)
What happened to farmers after the war?
Pushed Americans into consumer society (buying things on credit)
What did the economic prosperity push people to do?
10% unemployment rate
Advertising and supply and demand
How do we rebound after the 1921 recession?
Inflation during the war and failed union organizing efforts, veterans furious at economic situation, U.S. labor troubles result of fear of Bolshevism
Why were labor strikes breaking out?
What was on the rise?
Italian American community
Who was very upset by the Sacco and Vanzetti Case?
The case was reviewed by Michael Ducaucus and men were vindicated
What happened in 1977 regarding the Sacco and Vanzetti Case?
The Scopes Trial (1925)
American Civil Liberties League convinces Scopes to teach about evolution, he was found guilty. Defended by Darrow
Tennessee's Butler Law
Not allowed to teach about evolution
Where did fundamentalism seem especially vibrant?
The American legion
New organization of returning soldiers, they promised to uphold Americanism and attack radicals
Seattle Mayor who toured the U.S. claiming he put down a Bolshevik Uprising in his city
Lever Fuel Act
Prohibited obstruction of coal distribution during the war
J. Edgar Hoover (later the first FBI director)
1920 justice departments led by _________arrested many radicals, and many americans started to question the raids and realized there wasn't as many Bolsheviks in country as Palmer thought
James Weldon Johnson
Black writer who looked at racial violence and fear of communism and called the season "the red summer of 1919"
24 year old arrested for carrying whiskey. Arrest symbolized: shifts in US about alcohol and shifts in the ideas of the role of women
A word coined by Harding while hw was the 1920 republican candidate to convey what he thought country wanted— normal: free from war, reform efforts, and international entanglements
Anti saloon league leader who condemned immigrant resistance to prohibition
Colosimo's nephew/buisness manager. When Colosimo was shot and killed, he and Al Capone took over the Chicago liquor buinsness
1919- opened investment firm in boston with a high rate of return Because of the skill he claimed to have, was a scam. He was Arrested and deported in 1920
Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Candy Stanton
Leaders in women's suffrage, but died before they could see 19th amendment
Carrie Chapman Catt
Active member of WCTU and National American Woman Suffrage Association.. president of NAWSA for 2 terms, demanded suffrage as a 'war measure'
Introduced "Anthony amendment" (women's suffrage) to the House (1918)
New generation of women that cut their hair short, exposed skin, drank and smoke. Determined to have equal freedom as men
Sheppard Townes act
Passed in 1921, and provided federal funds for prenatal and infant care
1922, protected citizenship of US women who married non-citizens
Adelina otero warren
Ran for congress in 1922- won the republican nomination but lost the election
Passed in 1927 and created a plan to license radio stations and regulate wave lengths
Black Star Line
A shipping company created by Garvey to carry passengers and freight between US, Caribbean, and Africa. It collapsed and Garvey was arrested for Fraud and spent 5 years in prison, Coolidge commuted Garvey's sentence and deported him to Jamaica
Harlem Wesley Evans
1920- pushed Simmons aside and made KKK a hugely successful hate organization aimed at blacks, immigrants, catholics, jews
William Joseph Simmon
1915, a Georgian who recreated the KKK
Created under Evans, wanted every child to attend public school, advocated prohibition, slogan "one flag, one school, one bible"
1920- black lawyer who was abducted by the KKK and taken out to the middle of the mississippi river
Catholic knights of Columbus and the black press
Who began to challenge the KKK?
A movement claimed scientific basis to apply Darwinian theory to "natural selection" of the fittest human beings to reproduce and improve the human race
Begun the Eugenics movement in 1880 England, concluded the social elite better
American psychologist and eugenicist who established testing program on Ellis Island and sorted immigrants (1913)
Hated radical organization (IWW) and was wrongly convinced that its members were immigrants. Strongly anti Japanese and was a member of Asiatic Exclusion League, became chair of House committee on immigration (1919)... cut immigrant amount dramatically and banned Japanese immigrants
1900's, began with Protestantism. Ministers called for literal reading of the Bible, saw the 1920s as full of evil
Conference called by the US 1921 and led to the adoption of the 5 powers treaty in an ultimately ineffective effort to limit growth of world navies and thus preserve peace (tried to end competition between US, British, Japan)
5 powers Treaty
Result of Washington Conference, 1922, slowed worldwide navy build up and established limits on battleships
Appointed to serve secretary of treasury cut gov spending, cut taxes, and retired half of WWI debt
Who takes over after Harding dies in 1923?
Former secretary of treasury who favored prohibition and was supported by southern/western democrats. Leading contender for dem party 1924
Catholic, opposed prohibition, leading contender for democrat party 1924, religious bigotry surfaced regarding smith's Catholicism.
The boom of the 1920s which resulted in large amounts of consumer debt
What was based on speculation (taking a chance) and borrowed money?
Coolidge and Davis
Who ran in the 1924 election?
Charles G. Dawes
Negotiated "Dawes Plan" to help ameliorate German financial crisis, Coolidge's VP
The Kellogg-Briand Pact
1928 international treaty that denounced aggression and war but lacked provisions for enforcement
Republican- Hoover (favored prohibition) WINNER
Democrat- Al Smith (opposed prohibition)
Became more affordable, replaced railroads and became a key promoter economic growth
W.E.B.. du Bois
Disagreed with Garvey's back-to-Africa idea but endorsed his emphasis on racial pride and self respect.
Who did Harding appoint for his cabinent?
Who could vote for the first time in 1920?
Who turned the republican victory into a mandate to block US entry into League of Nations?
Head of veterans bureau who stole 2 million aimed at VA hospitals
AG Harry Daughtery
Investigated for the illegal sale of pardons and liquor permits
Charles Evans Hughes
Hardings Secretary of State who led several important international peace conferences, later becomes a Supreme Court Justice, Ends US occupation of Dominican Republic
Impact of the Fordney McCumber Tarriff
Europeans post WWI economic recovery hurt, had trouble paying huge war debt, tarriffs agaisnt US goods hurt US manufacturers
Short period of an economic boom
The farm problems
They overproduced during WWI because there was a big demand, bought more land and went into debt. Deflation on their products. Government later pays people not to farm
Result of the mcNary Haugen Bill
Farm prices stay down
What caused the red scare?
Including home of AG Palmer
In June, bombs in 8 cities exploded including what?
Ghettos (same cultural people come together to feel at home)
Where did most immigrant ethnic groups live in?
Charles Dawes came up with the idea to help ameliorate the German financial crisis, repayment schedule, and bankers lend money
Briefly ecmplain one specific example of how religion and science were a source of conflict in American society during the 1920s
Breifly explain one specific development during the 1920s that changed public attitudes toward prohibition
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