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ap csp midterm
Terms in this set (67)
A new or improved idea, device, product, etc, or the development thereof
A way of representing information using only two options
A contraction of "Binary Digit". A bit is the single unit of information in a computer, typically represented as a 0 or 1.
Transmission capacity measure by bit rate
the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time. e.g. 8 bits/sec.
Time it takes for a bit to travel from its sender to its receiver.
A set of rules governing the exchange or transmission of data between devices.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange; the universally recognized raw text format that any computer can understand
(v) to write code, or to write instructions for a computer.
develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards and protocols, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
A group of computers and servers that are connected to each other.
the principle that all Internet traffic should be treated equally by Internet Service Providers.
A number assigned to any item that is connected to the Internet.
Small chunks of information that have been carefully formed from larger chunks of information.
having multiple backups to ensure reliability during cases of high usage or failure
A type of computer that forwards data across a network
provides reliable, ordered and error checked delivery of a stream of packets in the internet
The service that translates URLs to IP addresses.
the protocol used for transmitting web pages over the Internet
An easy-to-remember address for calling a web page (like www.code.org).
a problem solving approach (algorithm) to find a satisfactory solution where finding an optimal or exact solution is impractical or impossible.
a data compression algorithm that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data.
A type of data used for graphics or pictures.
is data that describes other data. For example, a digital image my include metadata that describe the size of the image, number of colors, or resolution.
Short for "picture element" it is the fundamental unit of a digital image, typically a tiny square or dot which contains a single point of color of a larger image.
A base-16 number system that uses sixteen distinct symbols 0-9 and A-F to represent numbers from 0 to 15.
the RGB color model uses varying intensities of (R)ed, (G)reen, and (B)lue light are added together in to reproduce a broad array of colors.
(or irreversible compression) a data compression method that uses inexact approximations, discarding some data to represent the content. Most commonly seen in image formats like .jpg.
a simplified representation of something more complex. Abstractions allow you to hide details to help you manage complexity, focus on relevant concepts, and reason about problems at a higher level.
A computation in which rows from a data set are grouped together and used to compute a single value of more significant meaning or measurement. Common aggregations include: Average, Count, Sum, Max, Median, etc.
in most spreadsheet software it is the name of the tool used to create summary tables.
a table that shows the results of aggregations performed on data from a larger data set, hence a "summary" of larger data. Spreadsheet software typically calls them "pivot tables"
A precise sequence of instructions for processes that can be executed by a computer
high level programming language
A programming language with many commands and features designed to make common tasks easier to program. Any high level functionality is encapsulated as combinations of low level commands.
low level programming language
A programming language that captures only the most primitive operations available to a machine. Anything that a computer can do can be represented with combinations of low level commands.
To repeat in order to achieve, or get closer to, a desired goal.
A generic term for a type of programming statement (usually an if-statement) that uses a Boolean condition to determine, or select, whether or not to run a certain block of statements.
Putting commands in correct order so computers can read the commands.
a classic method for learning programming with commands to control movement and drawing of an on-screen robot called a "turtle". The turtle hearkens back to early implementations in which children programmed a physical robot whose dome-like shape was reminiscent of a turtle.
a named group of programming instructions. Functions are reusable abstractions that reduce the complexity of writing and maintaining programs
top down design
a problem solving approach (also known as stepwise design) in which you break down a system to gain insight into the sub-systems that make it up.
a collection of commands made available to a programmer
a description of the behavior of a command, function, library, API, etc.
a collection of commands / functions, typically with a shared purpose
An extra piece of information that you pass to the function to customize it for a specific need.
Loops that have a predetermined beginning, end, and increment (step interval).
The action of doing something over and over again.
a broad term for datasets so large or complex that traditional data processing applications are inadequate.
a prediction made by Gordon Moore in 1965 that computing power will double every 1.5-2 years, it has remained more or less true ever since
A business/corporate term for a one-page document that summarizes a large issue, topic or plan.
a technique for encryption that shifts the alphabet by some number of characters
the generic term for a technique (or algorithm) that performs encryption
When you attempt to decode a secret message without knowing all the specifics of the cipher, you are trying to "crack" the encryption.
a process that reverses encryption, taking a secret message and reproducing the original plain text
a process of encoding messages to keep them secret, so only "authorized" parties can read it.
random substitute cipher
an encryption technique that maps each letter of the alphabet to a randomly chosen other letters of the alphabet.
a "hard' problem for a computer is one in which it cannot arrive at a solution in a reasonable amount of time.
used in public key encryption, it is a scheme in which the key to encrypt data is different from the key to decrypt
a mathematical operation that returns the remainder after integer division. Example: 7 MOD 4 = 3
In an asymmetric encryption scheme the decryption key is kept private and never shared, so only the intended recipient has the ability to decrypt a message that has been encrypted with a public key.
public key encryption
Used prevalently on the web, it allows for secure messages to be sent between parties without having to agree on, or share, a secret key. It uses an asymmetric encryption scheme in which the encryption key is made public, but the decryption key is kept private.
usually keeps big lists of known viruses and scans your computer looking for the virus programs in order to get rid of them.
Typically a virus installed on many computers (thousands) activate at the same time and flood a target with traffic to the point the server becomes overwhelmed.
software that runs on servers (often routers) that only allows traffic through according to some set of security rules.
a thief trying to trick you into sending them sensitive information. Typically these include emails about system updates asking you send your username and password, social security number or other things.
Secure Sockets layer / Transport Layer Security - An encryption layer of HTTP that uses public key cryptography to establish a secure connection.
a program that runs on a computer to do something the owner of the computer does not intend.
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