Midterm Review 1200-1450
There are 15-20 questions from this era on the Midterm Exam
Terms in this set (65)
Unit 1 Theme: The Revival of Large Empires Between 1200 and 1450
Song Dynasty in China.
MesoAmerica = Aztec and Inca
Trade across the Sahara resulted in the West African empires of Ghana and Mali. Trade in the Indian Ocean provided the context for large states in Zimbabwe in East Africa and various states in India and Southeast Asia.
Unit 1 Theme: Unity in Central Eurasia
Shaping the context for events throughout Eurasia between 1200 and 1450 was the remarkable emergence of the Mongols. A group of nomads from Central Asia, the Mongols conquered lands from central Europe to the Pacific Ocean, creating the largest land empire in human history.
(960-1279 CE) The Chinese dynasty that placed much more emphasis on civil administration, industry, education, and arts other than military.
The Chinese class of well-educated men from whom many bureaucrats were chosen
traditional name for Chinese civilization, so-called because the Chinese believed China was the center of the Earth
legal currency issued on paper; it developed in China during the Tang/Song era as a convenient alternative to metal coins
Education in China
The exam system had a tremendous impact on Chinese culture. Since the examination was difficult, education became increasingly important in China, a development that fostered economic growth for many centuries.
Is having a educated class similar to the Islamic world or different?
Chinese term for checks
The system of __________ became the model for the banks of the modem era.
Exemplifies Chinese banking innovations that encouraged trade.
Tang and Song innovations
The technological, social, and cultural innovations from these dynasties included the first use of the compass; the invention of a water-powered clock,gunpowder, and printing press with movable type; the rise of densely populated urban areas; the growth of NeoConfucian thought; the use of stylized landscape painting; and the development of paper currency and flying cash, a form of credit.
China's bureaucratic system was known as a ____________
Though the poor were vastly underrepresented in the bureaucracy, the Chinese system allowed for more upward mobility than any other hiring system of its time.
a thin, beautiful pottery invented in China, began to be traded widely in the postclassical age, like Silk Porcelain exemplifies China's role as a nonagricultural producer/early industrial power.
Foot Binding (high degree of patriarchy in China)
Practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household.
A printing system developed by the ancient Chinese, in which wood blocks were carved with enough characters to print entire pages.
The most important new crop introduced into China during the Tang and Song periods was _________________. It allowed peasants in the warmer agricultural region of southern China to grow two crops a year. Thus, both land redistribution and food surpluses were instrumental in spreading China's prosperity.
Compare and Contrast Islamic/Chinese Technology
The Chinese viewed their country as the Middle Kingdom, a society around which the whole world revolved. At the very least, China was the center of a __________, an arrangement in which other states had to pay money or provide goods to honor the Chinese emperor. For example, the Silla Kingdom in Korea was not part of China, but it had to pay a large tribute to the emperor. The ISlamic World did not establish tributary relationships.
The word kowtow comes from Mandarin Chinese, and literally means to "knock head." An alternative version of the word, ke tou, has the slightly less painful translation "touch head." Both terms designate a style of prostration in which the user kneels down and touches his or her forehead to the ground or the floor in an act of physical submission.
This nomadic trading people based in the Middle East contributed to the growth of long-distance trade routes by using camels to travel through deserts in the Middle East and North Africa (Sahara). Arabs lived in separate tribal groups in Arabia prior to the introduction of Islam. Afterward, they spread their culture across the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia, and Spain.
Chinese invention that aided navigation by showing which direction was north
an Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to lands under Islamic rule
Contrast Them: Feudal Europe and Islamic Caliphates
The Abbasidian Caliphate flowered in the Islamic world at the same time as feudalism took root in W. Europe.Islamic merchants were trading with the world while European lords were governing manors. Baghdad became a center of learning in the Islamic Empire, whereas small monasteries became centers of learning in WE. It can be said that in the early Middle Ages, Europeans became very provincial, while Arabs became more worldly.
Islam and Patriarchy
Islam does believe women and men are spiritually equal.
Some practices now associated with Islam were common CULTURAL customs in Central Asia and the Byzantine Empire before the time of Muhammad. For example, women often covered their heads and faces. This practice solidified under Islam, with most women observing hijab, a term that can refer either to the practice of dressing modestly or to a specific type of covering.
Overall, Islamic women enjoyed a higher status than Christian or Jewish women. .
Difficulty of Islam and Hindu co-existance
The differences in the two religions - Islam and Hinduism - were so profound that it was nearly impossible to reconcile them. Islam emphasized equality, and Hinduism was squarely based on the hierarchical caste system. Islam expected believers to be completely submissive to one god, Allah; Hinduism's concept of a universal spirit easily encompassed many gods.
This term relates to the period of time in European history between the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the rise of the Renaissance, roughly between 500 and1500 C.E. This era is also known as the Middle Ages.
Western European Feudalism
This SOCIAL system dominated Western Europe in the early Middle Ages. Under feudalism, serfs performed agricultural labor under the decentralized leadership of lords. Social status was determined by birth, and women had limited power.In the 12th century, a military code of conduct called chivalry emerged. Chivalry focused on honor, modesty, loyalty, and duty.
System that described ECONOMIC relations between landlords and their peasant laborers (called Serfs) during the Middle Ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.
House of Wisdom in Baghdad
This institute of learning was established in Baghdad in 830 C.E. The House of Wisdom collected and translated classic Greek, Indian, Roman and Persian texts into Arabic.
This class of agricultural laborer worked for land owners in the European economic and social system of feudalism. Serfs had the right to work a certain portion of the land and keep some of their crops, but could not leave the land and were required to give the majority of their produce, along with gifts and taxes, to the land owner.
Christian holy wars were launched in 1095 C.E. by Pope Urban II in response to Muslim expansion into the Holy Land
Largest land empire in the history of the world, spanning from Eastern Europe across Asia.
Crusade - Economic motivations
First, the Crusades were not only motivated by religious beliefs and purposes. There were economic and political incentives as well. No doubt there were some who fought for religious reasons, especially in the early crusades, but the lure of empire and wealth was certainly a major factor for many.
Islamic Expansion Compared
Islam diffused gradually and naturally through trade contacts into Africa. In South Asia, Islam diffused through violent invasion as Islamic forces invaded northern India and established the Delhi Sultanate.
route across the sahara desert. Major trade route that traded for gold and salt, created caravan routes, economic benefit for controlling dessert, camels played a huge role in the trading
Islam Impact on Africa: Increase in Slave Trade
The arrival of Islam and global trade increased the volume of slaves in Africa. Slaves were precious commodities along the trans-Saharan and the Indian Ocean trading routes. Arab traders preferred women over men and put them to work as servants, as opposed to agricultural workers
African Resistance to Islamic Assimilation
Though many Africans had converted to Islam, they did not adopt all of its norms concerning gender. Why? Wearing the hijab (a veil that covered the head and chest) was a practice in Southwest Asia before the time of Muhammad, so it may have been considered a cultural tradition, not a religious requirement. Sub-Saharan societies had their own gender norms that predated the new ones that arrived with Islam, and such traditions did not change quickly
Transportation Technology: Camel Saddles
As use of the camel spread, people developed as many as 15 types of camel saddles for different purposes.
of or based on kinship with the mother or the female line. This aspect of African culture meant that there was a a LOWER DEGREE OF PATRIARCHY in the African world than the Islamic World.
Indian Ocean Trade
connected to Europe, Africa, and China.; worlds richest maritime trading network and an area of rapid Muslim expansion.
The Indian Ocean trade also created thriving city-states
along the east coast of Africa, sometimes known as the __________________
The traders sold ivory, gold, and slaves to their Arab trading partners,
Trade was so vigorous with East Asia that Chinese
porcelain remains a common find among the ruins of ______.
This East African kingdom, located in what is today Zimbabwe and Mozambique, thrived as an agricultural and trading empire from the 11th to the 15th century. The city known as Great Zimbabwe was built during the 13th century. Great Zimbabwe contained stone towers palaces, and public buildings, and was home to an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 people
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312-1337). His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world.
Mosque of Djenne
The Great Mosque of Djenné is the largest mud brick building in the world and is considered by many architects to be the greatest achievement of the west African architectural style, albeit with definite Islamic influences.
Example of Cultural Syncretism
As part of the Mali empire, _____ became a major trading center of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning
These communities were founded along key trade routes by merchants working in a foreign region, such as Muslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean region or Chinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia. These communities contributed to cross-cultural interaction by introducing the merchants' cultural traditions (such as religion) into new regions.
______________ is when an aspect of two or more distinct cultures blend together to create a new custom, idea, practice, or philosophy.
_________________ improved with lateen sails, the stern rudder, the
astrolabe, and the magnetic compass as Chinese, Indian, and Southwest Asians expanded their knowledge of astronomy and other aspects of the natural world.
Similarity Africa and South Asia: Social Practices More Important that Centralized Political Organization
Sub-Saharan Africa's small communities, instead of having strong central governments ruling over large territories, were organized around several
structures: kinship, age, and gender. This is SIMILAR to South Asia. India did not have a pattern of strong, centralized government and the caste system served as a tool of social organization.
This agricultural technique,named for the Mexican region where it originated, uses narrow human-made islands situated in freshwater lakes to grow crops. The fertility of the lake and ready water supply make the _________ system highly productive
Also known as Mexica, they created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325-1521 C.E.).
These Central Asian steppe peoples were influential between about 1000 and 1450 C.E. The Muslim Seljuk Turks defeated first the Abbasids at Baghdad in 1055 and, by 1071, the Byzantine Empire. The Afghan Turks invaded
India and founded the Delhi Sultanate that ruled northern India from 1206 to 1526 C.E.
Causes of Growth in Exchange Networks
Rise of New Empires (Abbasidian Caliphate, Song Dynasty, Mongol empire)
Improvements in Transportation Technologies (camel saddle, magnetic compass, astrolabe, junks, lateen sails, etc)
Effects of the Growth of Exchange Networks
2. Cities and Oases
3. Commercial Innovations - flying cash, paper money, banking houses, bills of exchange
4. Increased Demand for Luxury Goods
inn or rest station for caravans
The period of approximately 200 years of relative peace and stability created by the Mongol Empire.
A Mongolian general and emperor of the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, known for his military leadership and great cruelty. He conquered vast portions of northern China and southwestern Asia.
Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Genghis Khan.
Mongols in Russia
• The Mongols thought Russia had nothing of value and therefore only collected tribute from Russia
• The Mongols also separated Russia culturally from the rest of Europe
Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan who completed his grandfather's conquest of China
direct rule vs. indirect rule
Direct Rule - Mongols and the Persians, Arabs and Buddhists they brought with them assume formal, unambiguous control over the empire. (Yuan China).
Indirect Rule - Mongols ruled through the native peoples (Il-Khanates)
Mongols ruled this kingdom, but Persians served as ministers and provincial and local officials.
The Mongols found that this arrangement resulted in maximum tax collection.
Most Mongols converted to Islam. (assimilation)
Yuan Dynasty China
Mongol dynasty that ruled China from 1271 to 1368; its name means "great beginnings."
Collapse of Yuan (Mongol Rule)
Mongolian leaders eventually alienated many Chinese.
They hired foreigners for the government rather than native-born Chinese.
By promoting Buddhists and Daoists and dismantling the civil service exam
system, the Mongols distressed the Chinese scholar-gentry class who were
Lack of Assimilation between Mongols and native Chinese.
Bubonic Plague - Long Term Economic Benefit for Europe
The Black Death had a tremendous impact on Europe, however the reduced number of workers led to a new relationship between workers and those they worked for: each person's labor became more valuable, so workers could demand higher wages.
This shift helped lay the groundwork for the economic changes that developed as feudalism declined.
natives of an area who have been conquered or dominated by others who came later
Mongol - low degree of patriarchy
Mongol women led more independent lives than women in other societies of the time. In their nomadic culture, women tended flocks of sheep and goats in addition to raising children and providing meals for the family. Since they rode horses as Mongol men did, the women wore the same kind of leather trousers. Mongol women could remarry after being widowed and could initiate divorces.
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