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Ibn Batuta

Arab traveler; described African societies and cultures in his travel records;


The "Lion Prince"; a member of the Keita clan; created a unified state that became the Mali Empire; became emperor;


King of Ethiopia AFTER Christians came through; made 11 churches and all bore his name


Mansa Kankan Musa; converted to Islam, ruler of Mali; made pilgrimage to Mecca; caused inflation in price of gold as Mali was known for gold; brought back architect who built mosques in Mali (Great Mosque of Jenne)

Mwene Mutapa

King of Great Zimbabwe, helped them make a rapid expansion. dominated over sources of gold. representatives of it helped export textiles and impressed Europeans with iron weapons.

Centralized societies

used a bureaucracy; examples are Oyo, Zimbabwe, and Luba (in Katanga)

Secret Societies

ended family disputes, banishment and forms new society. Is a government, has a power structure, leader is usually the eldest or council of elders rule. CAN CHECK THE POWER OF LEADER IF NECESSARY. sent junior members to resolve power struggles. Located mainly in west african forest

Stateless Societies

No need for taxation, hard to do long distance trading, hard to resist outside influences, they had a delayed ability to respond to outside pressures. examples Hausa states, Yoruba, and Benin.


most important African Christian outpost. retained Christian religion despite increasing pressure from the Muslims


extensive grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara; became point of exchange between North and South Africa where ideas, people, and trade arrived. Several states in this region developed an islamic culture that mixed with local practices.


professional oral historians; passed stories down through generations since Africa DID NOT HAVE A WRITING SYSTEM.


city-states that developed in northern Nigeria; Ile-Ife had an artistic style similar to that of the Nok culture. ag society supported by peasantry; dominated by an aristocracy


yoruban city-state; had a king who used nobles in provinces. secret society of Ogboni checked the king's power

Great Zimbabwe

Bantu kingdom; centralized state. Mwene Mutapa


early African culture in which Bantu developed and spread.

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