Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads


Process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from anther strain of bacteria.


Virus that infects bacteria.


Monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.

Base Pairing

Principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine.


Granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins.


Globular protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin.


Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA.

DNA Polymerase

Enzyme that "proofreads" new DNA strands, helping to ensure that each molecule is a nearly perfect copy of the original DNA.


Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait.

Messenger RNA

RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell.

Ribosomal RNA

Types of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes.

Transfer RNA

Type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis.


Process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence of RNA.

RNA Polymerase

Enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription.


Region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA.


Intervening sequence of DNA; does not code for a protein.


Expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein.


three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid


decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain


group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon


change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information

Point Mutation

mutation that affects a single nucleotide, usually by substituting one nucleotide for another

Frameshift Mutation

mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide


condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes


group of genes operating together


region of chromosome in an operon to which the repressor binds when the operon is "turned off"


process in which cells become specialized in structure and function

Hox Gene

series of genes that controls the organs and tissues that develop in various parts of an embryo

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording