28 terms

Ashley's Vocab Terms- Chapter 12

STUDY
PLAY
Transformation
Process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from anther strain of bacteria.
Bacteriophage
Virus that infects bacteria.
Nucleotide
Monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
Base Pairing
Principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine.
Chromatin
Granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins.
Histone
Globular protein molecule around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin.
Replication
Copying process by which a cell duplicates its DNA.
DNA Polymerase
Enzyme that "proofreads" new DNA strands, helping to ensure that each molecule is a nearly perfect copy of the original DNA.
Gene
Sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait.
Messenger RNA
RNA molecule that carries copies of instructions for the assembly of amino acids into proteins from DNA to the rest of the cell.
Ribosomal RNA
Types of RNA that makes up the major part of ribosomes.
Transfer RNA
Type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis.
Transcription
Process in which part of the nucleotide sequence of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence of RNA.
RNA Polymerase
Enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription.
Promoter
Region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA.
Intron
Intervening sequence of DNA; does not code for a protein.
Exon
Expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein.
Codon
three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
Translation
decoding of a mRNA message into a polypeptide chain
Anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
Mutation
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
Point Mutation
mutation that affects a single nucleotide, usually by substituting one nucleotide for another
Frameshift Mutation
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
Polyploidy
condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes
Operon
group of genes operating together
Operator
region of chromosome in an operon to which the repressor binds when the operon is "turned off"
Differentiation
process in which cells become specialized in structure and function
Hox Gene
series of genes that controls the organs and tissues that develop in various parts of an embryo