Revolt of Natives
Where: Santa Fe
Did-What: The Pueblo ritual that were considered incompatible with Christianity were suppressed in the 1660s and the 1670s. The Natives were very discontent with the suppression of their rituals, and this unhappiness built up for decades. There was also a drought and a series of raids by neighboring Apache tribes causing great instability in the colony. An Indian religious leader, named Pope, led an uprising that killed hundreds of European settlers, including 21 priests, captured Santa Fem and temporarily drove the spanish from the region. 12 year later, the Spanish returned to power in Santa Fe and crushed a last revoltin 1696.
So-What: The obvious discontent and poor treatment of Natives is represented in this revolt. The Spanish continued to exploit the Pueblos, but after this revolt the Spanish realized that they could not prosper in New Mexico. They tried to prosper, even when greatly outnumbered in two ways. They put more effort into assimilating the Indians by baptizing Indian children at birth and intensifying the enforcement of observing Catholic rituals. They also permitted Pueblos to own their own land, stopped commandeering Indian labor, and replaced the encomiendas with a less demanding and oppressive system, and tacitly allowed the practice of native tribal religious rituals.
Did-What: The first enduring English settlement in the New World was established here.
So-What: After about 30 years of previous failure in creating lasting colonies in the New World, this settlement gave hope to the English for success.
19. Roanoke◊ Failed English Colony
When: 1585+, 1587+
Where: Island off of the Coast of Virginia
Did-What: Sir Walter Raleigh tried to make a colony here in 1585. They showed their authority by attacking an Indian village as retaliation for a minor theft, but in 1586, Sir Francis Drake brought the colonists home because of a lack of supplies being provided to Roanoke. In 1587, Raleigh tried again. He brought over 100 settlers to the island, hopeful to start a viable plantation. The first American born baby of English parents was born here, and its grandfather, John White, left the island after the baby's birth. He was to return soon, but hostilities with Spain intervened, and when he did return, the island was deserted. The only evidence of the settlement was a sign with the word "Croatoan" on it. The "Lost Colony's" fate is still unknown with slaughter and assimilation being the most likely occurrences.
So-What: The English ability to colonize the New World was further doubted and seemed even less likely and easy. No more grants of colonization authority like the ones given to Raleigh and Gilbert were given out. Raleigh was executed, but other people were given permission by the King and Queen to colonize the New World.
Marketable Crop and Addictive Drug
Where: New World
Where: Around 1492+
Did-What: Settlements sold and traded tobacco as a marketable crop. It's addictiveness made it even more profitable, but many critics, including King James I, disliked and denounced the use of tobacco. Since the demand for tobacco was so high, colonists continued to grow, trade and sell it. Planter John Folg, in 1612, used a harsh strain of tobacco and was very successful in growing selling and trading it.
So-What: Settlements were able to make a lot of money from the addictive, marketable crop of tobacco. It helped transform Chesapeake as well as many other settlements into more fundamental, successful, profitable societies. Also, since tobacco cultivation required territorial expansion and constant changes in planting locations, settlers traveled farther and farther into the interior of North America.
When: Around 1670s
Did-What: The Wampanoags, led by Metacomet (King Philip), had previously been peaceful, but by the 1670s he felt that only armed resistance could protect the Wampanoags, from the English. For three years the Natives terrorized Mass. towns in organized attacks. In 1676 after being greatly weakened the settlers fought back, with the help of the Mohawks, and killed Metacomet and destroyed the Wampanoags to a point where they could no longer fight back.
So-What: Although the Native Indians made significant attempts to salvage their land and tribes, they proved time and time again, as in this example, that they were no match for the English. The settlers had better technology and were even able to ally with other tribes. Overall, Indian-English battles were very one-sided.
When: Around 1650 s+
Where: England---> Pennsylvania
Did-What: The ______________, also known as the Society of Friends. Their name came about because their leader, George Fox, wanted them to "tremble at the name of the Lord." Unlike puritans, __________________, rejected the concept of predetermined fate and original sin. They believed that each person had an inner light that could guide people along a path of righteousness. Women also had nearly equal roles of men within the church.
So-What: Due to their unique religious views they _______________ were not well received. Many left England for the new world, because of the harsh conditions, but had to deal with similar problems (even _________ getting killed), except in RHode Island. Then to make a place for the ____________, William Penn helped them found their own colony that offered a safe religious environment, Pennsylvania.
Age of Reason
When: Around 1600 s+-
Where◊ Colonies, Europe
Did-What: People began to think using reason. They did not always turn to God, as they did in the past, but used their own knowledge to their advantage. At first (early 1600s), most Enlightenment ideas in America were largely borrowed from abroad (Francis Bacon , John Locke etc.), but after a while such Americans as Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, and James Madison made their own contributions to the Enlightenment tradition.
So-What: Society was reshaped around reasonable thinking, not just religious ideologies. Great advancements were made in education, technology, and society as a whole. By challenging past beliefs, newer and better techniques were discovered and used. American society and education advanced and the colonies began to industrialize.
Where: North America (France and England)
PHASE 1: The war started with a failed English attack, led by George Washington, on France's for Necessity. France received reinforcements, colonists were raided by Indians, the English were unsuccessful to take bake Ohio River valley land (under General Edward Braddock). This phase lasted until 1756 when the was expanded to Europe
PHASE 2: The governments of France and ENgland formally opened hostilities and a truly international conflict, the 7 years War, began. European alliances were formed and the British took control of the colonial conflict. Colonists were enlisted and British troops were housed in the colonists' houses.
PHASE 3: In 1758 William Pitt, one of the British military strategists removed many obnoxious policies imposed upon the Americans. With the help of bad French harvests and excellent generals, Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe, the English were able to win many decisive battles and take important land from the French. The French did surrender some places, but other battles were very brutal. The war ended in 1763 with the signing of the Peace of Paris, which gave the British many previously French lands.
So-What: England ended up with extreme amounts of territory in the New World from their victory in the war: French West Indian Islands and most of the French colonies in India, Canada and all other French territory east of the Mississippi except New Orleans. New Orleans and other French claims west of the Mississippi went to Spain. England had spent a ton of money on the war and had little leftover to finance their new lands. Colonists came together because they had fought and worked together towards the same goal. The British realized that they had to be stricter with the colonies---> imposing laws---> the American Revolution. The Indians of the Ohio valley were destroyed and very weak and decimated. The Iroquois fared slightly better, but their lack of involvement annoyed the colonists. The Iroquois Confederacy eventually crumbled.
When: October 1765
Where: New York
Did-What: James Otis (Mass.) persuaded his fellow congressmen to call for an intercolonial congress for action against the Stamp Act tax. the congress met in New York in 1765, with delegates from nine colonies. They petitioned the King claiming that American were responsible to Parliament, but should only be taxed by their own provincial assemblies.
So-What: The congress once again brought the colonies to work together against the British. After a while the British backed down, not because of defiance, but because of economic pressure from boycotts. The Americans were effectively fighting back together against the British.
11. Sons of Liberty◊ Rebellious Organization
When: Summer 1765
Where: Boston, Colonies
Did-What: They participated in riots, terrorized stamp agents and burned the stamps, participated in and encouraged boycotts against british goods.
So-What: Stamp agents resigned, the sale of stamps in the continental colonies virtually ceased the British began to back down, and colonists worked together, even participating in the same widespread boycott, to challenge to British authority in the colonies.
Oppressive English Policies
When: Around 1765+-
Did-What: William Pitt was called upon to replace the dislike Rockingham government. Unfortunately Pitt was not very healthy, so administration fell to the chancellor of the new government Charles Townshend- a brilliant, active, and at times reckless politician. The Mutiny (or Quartering) ACt of 1765 required the colonists to provide quarters and supplies for the British troops in America. The New York Assembly was also disbanded until the colonists agreed to obey the Mutiny Act (singled out New York to decrease widespread anger. The Townshend Duties imposed taxes on various goods imported to the colonies from England including lead, paint, paper, and tea.
So-What: Townshend did not achieved its goal of not arousing all the colonies at once, as Grenville had. The new taxes were no more acceptable to the colonial merchants as the Stamp Act (it raise revenue from the colonists without their consent), even if the taxes were external. The Massachusetts Assembly took the lead in opposing the new measures by circulation a letter to all colonial governments urging them to stand up against every tax, external or internal, imposed by Parliament.
When: Evening of December 16, 1773
Did-What: Due to the discontent over the Tea Act, colonists protested and stored the tea that was supposed to be shipped out so the English couldn't get it. In Boston, after failing to turn back three ships in the harbor local Patriots staged a spectacular drama. Three groups of 50 men dressed ad Mohawks passed through a crowd of people, went aboard three ships, broke open the tea chests, and heaved them into the harbor.
So-What: Other seaports followed the Boston Massacre's example and staged similar acts of discontent. When the Bostonians refused to pay for the property that they had destroyed, King George III and Lord North applied the Coercive Acts on them. After the Coercive Acts were passed, Massachusetts became somewhat of a martyr in the colonies. Protests, sometimes against tea, continued throughout the colonies.
Where: Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia
Did-What: After the royal governor dismissed the intercolonial committee of correspondence, Virginia called for a special meeting in a Raleigh Tavern at Williamsburg. In the meeting they stated that the Intolerable Acts did not respect the liberties of the colonies, and they issued a call for the _________________________. The ____________________ was made up of elected civilians and at it they are 5 major decisions: 1, they rejected that plan proposed by joseph Galloway for a colonial union under British authority; 2, they endorsed a statement of greece's; 3, they approved a series of resolutions; 4, they agreed to nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption as means of stopping all trade with Great Britain; 5, they agreed to meet again next spring, indicating that the ________________ was considered a continuing organization.
So-What'S The colonies reaffirmed their discontent with British rule and put extreme pressure on the British to act. It also showed that the colonies were uniting, because they had agreed to possibly fight against the British together, as one army, if war was to happen.
When: April 18, 1775+
Where: Lexington, Concord, Colonies
Did-What: About 1,000 British soldiers were sent from Boston on the road to Lexington and Concord under the leadership of General Gage, after he was alerted that the minutemen had stored a large si[[;u of gunpowder in COncord. The patriots were alerted by William Dawes and Paul Revere, and waited for the British. Once the British arrived shots were fired and 8 minutemen were killed. The British discovered that most of the gunpowder in Concord had been removed by the Americans, and they burned the rest of it. Along the road from Concord back to Boston the Colonists fired shots at the British and by the end of the day, the British had lost almost 3 times as many troops as the Americans
So-What: Although they may not have known it, the battles at Lexington and Concord were the start of the American revolution, which ended up with the colonies being free from British rule. The colonists proved they were able to fight the British and that all their work to unite had payed off. The victories also rallied the troops and got them ready for the battles to come.
When: July 4, 1776
Did-What: Was the document that declared the United States its own, free country. It was written mainly by Thomas Jefferson, who received help from Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and past written documents. The document had two parts. The first was about John Locke's theory that the government had to protect the people rights of "Life, Liberty, and Property", but changed the statement to "Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness" to portray a more idealistic tone. THe second part is a list of alleged crimes and grievances of the King, who, with the backing of Parliament, had broken his contract and was no longer fit to rule. The document also stated that all men are created equally, an idea in a document by Virginian George Mason.
When: Around 1775-1783+-
Did-What and So-What: Many women lost a lot of economic stability when their male relatives left for war. They had trouble running plantations and farmland, if the had any, and overall many became impoverished and sometimes even rioted for food. Some women, however, joined the Patriots in war and fighting for independence. Army commanders, including George Washington, were annoyed by the women and thought they were being disruptive. The women, however, were actually of great value to the army. Women, unfortunately gained few rights and did not move up significantly in society. The revaluation of American life and lack of change in women's rights actually reassured their place in society.
17. Limits of the Articles of Confederation◊ Weak American Central Government
Did-What: Although the _________________ gave significant power to Congress, they still lacked many important abilities. They did not have the power to regulate trade, draft troops, to lay taxes directly on the people. For troops and taxes, Congress had to make formal requests to the state legislatures, which could, and often did, reject them. In Congress a 9 out of 13 vote (1 vote per State) was needed to approve the admission of a new state and all 13 had to approve any amendments of the Articles.
So-What: It was hard to get significant things done within congress, and the country struggled without having a powerful main leading government.
Act of Distress
When: Around 1786+-
Where: Connecticut Valley and Berkshire Valley
Did-What: Distressed farmers rioted throughout the 1780s, one more notable rebellion was ___________________. Farmers rallied behind ______________,a former captain in the Continental army. ________ issued a set of demands that included paper money, tax relief, a moratorium on debts, the relocation of the state capital from Visit to the interior, and the abolition of imprisonment of debt. In 1785 ____________'s followers concentrated on presenting the collection of debts, private or public, and used force to keep courts from sitting and sheriffs from selling confiscated property. Members of Boston's legislature, such as Samuel Adams, denounced the troops and when they charged Springfield in January 1787, they were dispersed by an army of state militiamen.
So-What: The military efforts of the rebellion were unsuccessful and at first _________ and his followers were sentenced to death. They were then pardoned and even got some tax relief as well as some concessions to the aggrieved farmers. The rebellion also sped up and supported the movement towards the creation of a new constitution.