Terms in this set (100)

English Settlement
When: 1607+
Where: Virginia
Did-What: The first enduring English settlement in the New World was established here.
So-What: After about 30 years of previous failure in creating lasting colonies in the New World, this settlement gave hope to the English for success.

19. Roanoke◊ Failed English Colony
When: 1585+, 1587+
Where: Island off of the Coast of Virginia
Did-What: Sir Walter Raleigh tried to make a colony here in 1585. They showed their authority by attacking an Indian village as retaliation for a minor theft, but in 1586, Sir Francis Drake brought the colonists home because of a lack of supplies being provided to Roanoke. In 1587, Raleigh tried again. He brought over 100 settlers to the island, hopeful to start a viable plantation. The first American born baby of English parents was born here, and its grandfather, John White, left the island after the baby's birth. He was to return soon, but hostilities with Spain intervened, and when he did return, the island was deserted. The only evidence of the settlement was a sign with the word "Croatoan" on it. The "Lost Colony's" fate is still unknown with slaughter and assimilation being the most likely occurrences.
So-What: The English ability to colonize the New World was further doubted and seemed even less likely and easy. No more grants of colonization authority like the ones given to Raleigh and Gilbert were given out. Raleigh was executed, but other people were given permission by the King and Queen to colonize the New World.
English Settlement
When: Around 1606+
Where: England---> New World
Did-What: The London Company sent a party of 144 men towards Virginia. Only 104 survived the journey, and when they reached the coast in the spring of 1607 they sailed up the Chesapeake Bay and up a river called James where they established a colony on a peninsula extending from the river's northern bank. The colony lacked good soil, many willing laborers, and safety from Indian tribes. Diseases, such as Malaria, were also detrimental to the health of the colony. Since the settlers didn't have women, the settlement did not feel permanent. The colony had only 38 surviving members of the original 104 when additional men and supplies arrived in 1608. The settlement would likely have died out if not for the help and organization efforts of John Smith. (See Above). The winter of 1609-1610 was known as the starving period: The Indians devastated the English by killing of livestock in the woods and barricading the settlers in their colony.
So-What: The settlers finally left the colony and as they were sailing down the James River towards the Ches peale Bay They, get another ship. The ship convinced the settlers to return. They did and were led by their first governor Lord De La Warr, and his successors after him- Sir Thomas Dale and Sir THomas Gates. They ruled with great leadership and authority and created a functional society in a place that was nearly deserted. One major help in their success was the discovery of a marketable crop known as tobacco.
Territorial War
When: 1754-1763
Where: North America (France and England)
Did-What:
PHASE 1: The war started with a failed English attack, led by George Washington, on France's for Necessity. France received reinforcements, colonists were raided by Indians, the English were unsuccessful to take bake Ohio River valley land (under General Edward Braddock). This phase lasted until 1756 when the was expanded to Europe
PHASE 2: The governments of France and ENgland formally opened hostilities and a truly international conflict, the 7 years War, began. European alliances were formed and the British took control of the colonial conflict. Colonists were enlisted and British troops were housed in the colonists' houses.
PHASE 3: In 1758 William Pitt, one of the British military strategists removed many obnoxious policies imposed upon the Americans. With the help of bad French harvests and excellent generals, Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe, the English were able to win many decisive battles and take important land from the French. The French did surrender some places, but other battles were very brutal. The war ended in 1763 with the signing of the Peace of Paris, which gave the British many previously French lands.
So-What: England ended up with extreme amounts of territory in the New World from their victory in the war: French West Indian Islands and most of the French colonies in India, Canada and all other French territory east of the Mississippi except New Orleans. New Orleans and other French claims west of the Mississippi went to Spain. England had spent a ton of money on the war and had little leftover to finance their new lands. Colonists came together because they had fought and worked together towards the same goal. The British realized that they had to be stricter with the colonies---> imposing laws---> the American Revolution. The Indians of the Ohio valley were destroyed and very weak and decimated. The Iroquois fared slightly better, but their lack of involvement annoyed the colonists. The Iroquois Confederacy eventually crumbled.
Social Existence
When: Around 1775-1783+-
Where: America
Did-What and So-What: Many women lost a lot of economic stability when their male relatives left for war. They had trouble running plantations and farmland, if the had any, and overall many became impoverished and sometimes even rioted for food. Some women, however, joined the Patriots in war and fighting for independence. Army commanders, including George Washington, were annoyed by the women and thought they were being disruptive. The women, however, were actually of great value to the army. Women, unfortunately gained few rights and did not move up significantly in society. The revaluation of American life and lack of change in women's rights actually reassured their place in society.

17. Limits of the Articles of Confederation◊ Weak American Central Government
When: 1777+
Where: America
Did-What: Although the _________________ gave significant power to Congress, they still lacked many important abilities. They did not have the power to regulate trade, draft troops, to lay taxes directly on the people. For troops and taxes, Congress had to make formal requests to the state legislatures, which could, and often did, reject them. In Congress a 9 out of 13 vote (1 vote per State) was needed to approve the admission of a new state and all 13 had to approve any amendments of the Articles.
So-What: It was hard to get significant things done within congress, and the country struggled without having a powerful main leading government.
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