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39 terms

random bio stuff

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gametophyte
the gamete-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
Sporophyte
Spore-producing plant, Diploid.
Antheridium
the male sex organ of spore-producing plants
Archegonium
the female reproductive structure in which eggs are produced
Rhizoids
roots of bryophytes, a few epidermal cells that anchor the plant to the soil
Spores
a single reproductive cell that grows into a new plant
Germination
early growth stage of a plant embryo
Fertilization
creation by the physical union of male and female gametes
Haploid
(genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
Diploid
(genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
Prothallus
the structure in ferns that produces gametes.
frond
The leaf of a fern
pinna
division of a usually pinnately divided leaf
xylem
the vascular tissue through which water and nutrients move in some plants
phloem
the vascular tissue of a plant that transports organic materials (photosynthetic products)
roots
Absorbs water and minerals from the ground. Anchors plant in ground.
sori
fern structures in which spores are produced
sporangium
a structure in which spores are produced
spores
reproductive cells that can develop into another organism without fusing with another cell.
sorus
cluster of sporangia usually on underside of a fern frond
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Atomic Mass
Total mass of the protons and neutrons in an atom, measured in atomic mass units
Period Number
the numbers on the periodic table that are going vertically- tells us the number of rings that an atom has
Mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
meiosis
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
spindle fibers
strands that pull sister chromatids (act like "puppet-strings")
Centrioles
Located near the nucleus and help to organize cell division
Centromeres
area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
Homolgus Pairs
pair of identical chromosomes
sister chromatids
two daughter strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the middle by a centromere
Prophase
first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
Metaphase
second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Anaphase
the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles
Telophase
the final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
double helix
two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA. Antiparel
Lac Operon
a cluster of genes under the control of one promoter and one operator; the genes collectively code for the enzymes and proteins required for a bacterial cell to use lactose as a nutrient
Translocation
change to a chromosome in which a fragment of one chromosome attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome
base pairing
principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine
Watson and Crick
nobel prize winners for correctly describing the structure of DNA as a double helix