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consists of a superficial epidermis and a deeper dermis; below this the hypodermis, which is a layer of connective tissue
has five epidermal layers and covers the palms, soles, fingers, and toes with surface layer of dead cells and it lacks hair follicles
the study and treatment of the integument adn the appearance and/or condition of one's kin can provide diagnostic information regarding one's overall health
consists of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that is organized into several distinct strata
contains no blood vessels, so its cells depend on diffusion of oxygen adn nutrients from blood vessels in underlying connective tissue
consists of a single layer of cuboidal or columnar cells that continuously undergo mitotic cell division to produce new skin cells
is responsisble for skin color and it absorbs ultraviolet radiation to protect from damaging effects of sunlight
when skin is prepared for microscope slides, keratinocytes shrink and pull apart, except where attached by desosomes, giving this layer "spiny" appearance
dendritic (langerhans) cells
arise in bone marrow and migrate to epidermis to protect against microbes that invade skin
consists of keratinocytes that contain dark-staining granules of protein that eventually become keratin
die and release waterproofing glycolipids that form a barrier between the stratum spinosum and the stratum granulosum
contains up to 30 layers of dead, scaly keratinized cells and makes up about 75% of the thickness of the epidermis
it takes 30-40 days for a keratinocyte to migrate to the skin's surface and exfoliate as . . . . .
consists of connective tissue comrpised mainly of collagen fibers, but elastic fibers, reticular fibers, fibroblasts, and macrophages are also present
extend into the epidermis to form epidermal ridges on palsm, fingers, soles, toes, that increase grip by increasing friction
contains capillaries, touch receptors (Meissner's corpuscles), adn free nerve endings
binds skin to underlying tissue, cushions body, provides thermal insulation, stores energy
numerous blood vessels supply skin with oxygen adn nutrients and provide pathway for rapid absorption of drugs and/or mediciines into bloodstream
ultraviolet radiation (sunlight)
stimulates melanocytes to increase their production of melanin, so the skin becomes darker
results from partial or complete loss of melanocytes in patches of skin and produces irregular whtie blotches
is a yellow-orange pigment that accumulates in the stratum corneum or sub-cutaneous fat,which gives the skin a yellowish tint
molecules in the blood become visible, producing pinkish flesh tones typical of caucasian skin
describes abnormal redness due to the dilation of dermal blood vessels during strenuous exercise or heat or anger of embarrasment
describes blueness of the skin due to insufficient oxygen in the blood because of airway obstructions or lung disease or cold weather
a yellowing of the skin and whties of the eyes due to elevated levels of bilirubin in the blood, which is unable to be disposed fo by the liver
describes pale skin due to reduces dermal blood flow because of low blood pressure or shock of anemia or emotional stress
is a genetic defect that restults in a lack of teh amino acid tyrosine, which blocks the synthesis of melanin and produces pale skin, white hair, and pink eyes
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