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the body's largest organ in terms of surface area and weight


would cover 1.5-2.0 square meters of surface area if flattened


makes up about 15% of total body weight


consists of a superficial epidermis and a deeper dermis; below this the hypodermis, which is a layer of connective tissue

thick skin

has five epidermal layers and covers the palms, soles, fingers, and toes with surface layer of dead cells and it lacks hair follicles

thin skin

has four thinner epidermal layers and covers all other parts of the body


the study and treatment of the integument adn the appearance and/or condition of one's kin can provide diagnostic information regarding one's overall health


consists of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium that is organized into several distinct strata


contains no blood vessels, so its cells depend on diffusion of oxygen adn nutrients from blood vessels in underlying connective tissue

stratum basale

consists of a single layer of cuboidal or columnar cells that continuously undergo mitotic cell division to produce new skin cells


are teh most abundant cells and are held together by desmosomes


filled with tough, fibrous keratin that protects skin from heat microbes, chemicals


help waterproof skin


synthesize the pigment melanin


is responsisble for skin color and it absorbs ultraviolet radiation to protect from damaging effects of sunlight

merkel cells

are touch receptors that join with sensory neurons to form merkel discs

stratum spinosum

consists of several layers of keratinocytes

stratum spinosum

when skin is prepared for microscope slides, keratinocytes shrink and pull apart, except where attached by desosomes, giving this layer "spiny" appearance

dedritic (langerhans) cells

are macrophages that protect the body

dendritic (langerhans) cells

arise in bone marrow and migrate to epidermis to protect against microbes that invade skin

stratum granulosum

consists of keratinocytes that contain dark-staining granules of protein that eventually become keratin


die and release waterproofing glycolipids that form a barrier between the stratum spinosum and the stratum granulosum

stratum lucidum

a thin, translucent layer of dead cells found only in thick skin

stratum corneum

contains up to 30 layers of dead, scaly keratinized cells and makes up about 75% of the thickness of the epidermis


it takes 30-40 days for a keratinocyte to migrate to the skin's surface and exfoliate as . . . . .


mots household dist is made up of this when it doesn't get eliminated


presence of this in bedding provides food for dust mites

thickened callus

persisten friction with the stratum corneum can cause this to occur

feces of dust mites

allergy to household dust is actually allergy to . . . . .


consists of connective tissue comrpised mainly of collagen fibers, but elastic fibers, reticular fibers, fibroblasts, and macrophages are also present

dermal papillae

boundary between dermis and epidermis

finger-like projections

extend into the epidermis to form epidermal ridges on palsm, fingers, soles, toes, that increase grip by increasing friction


. . . . at these surfaces form fingerprints or footprints on objects

superficial zone

papillary layer

superficial zone

comprised of areolar connective tissue that contains elastic fibers

superficial zone

contains capillaries, touch receptors (Meissner's corpuscles), adn free nerve endings

deeper zone

reticular layer

deeper zone

comprised of dense irregular connective tissue that c ontains collagen bundles

deeper zoen

contains adipocytes, hair follicles, nerves, oil glands, and the ducts of sweat glands

subcutaneous layer

beneath the dermis is the subcutaneous hypodermis or superficial fascia

subcutaneous layer

consits of areolar tissue adn adipose tissue

subcutaneous layer

binds skin to underlying tissue, cushions body, provides thermal insulation, stores energy

subcutaneous layer

numerous blood vessels supply skin with oxygen adn nutrients and provide pathway for rapid absorption of drugs and/or mediciines into bloodstream

subcutaneous layer

contains nerve endings (pacinian corpuscles); sensitive to pressure

skin color

determined by genes that control interactiosn among melanin and carotene and hemoglobin


produces variations in skin color that range from pale yellow to black

ultraviolet radiation (sunlight)

stimulates melanocytes to increase their production of melanin, so the skin becomes darker


tends to be plentiful in face, limbs, around nipples, external genitalia

dark skin

melanin breaks down slowly making it visible in all epidermal layers

light skin

melanin breaks down rapidly making it less visible beyond stratum basale


flat patches of skin where melanin accumulates


elevated patches of skin where melanin accumulates


results from partial or complete loss of melanocytes in patches of skin and produces irregular whtie blotches


is a yellow-orange pigment that accumulates in the stratum corneum or sub-cutaneous fat,which gives the skin a yellowish tint


results when melanin and carotene are in short supply, epidermis is . . . . .


molecules in the blood become visible, producing pinkish flesh tones typical of caucasian skin


describes abnormal redness due to the dilation of dermal blood vessels during strenuous exercise or heat or anger of embarrasment


describes blueness of the skin due to insufficient oxygen in the blood because of airway obstructions or lung disease or cold weather


a yellowing of the skin and whties of the eyes due to elevated levels of bilirubin in the blood, which is unable to be disposed fo by the liver


describes pale skin due to reduces dermal blood flow because of low blood pressure or shock of anemia or emotional stress


is a genetic defect that restults in a lack of teh amino acid tyrosine, which blocks the synthesis of melanin and produces pale skin, white hair, and pink eyes


is a visible blood clot caused by trauma to the skin, which produces a bruise


are "birthmarks" caused by benign tumors of dermal blood vessels

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