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Terms in this set (24)
the body of salt water that covers nearly three-fourths of Earth's surface
contains more than 97% of all of the water on Earth
only about 1/4,000 of Earth's total mass and only 1/800 of Earth's total volume
The Pacific Ocean
largest ocean on Earth's surface. With an average depth of 4.3 km, it is also the deepest ocean.
atlantic, indian, southern
2nd, 3rd, 4th largest oceans
the smallest ocean, and it surrounds the North Pole.
a large, commonly saline body of water that is smaller than an ocean and that may be partially or completely surrounded by land
the scientific study of the oceans
voyage of the HMS Challenger
laid the foundation for the modern science of oceanography
sound navigation and ranging, a system that uses acoustic signals and returned echoes to determine the location of objects or to communicate
Scientists then use this information to make maps and profiles of the ocean floor.
underwater research vessels
a spherical diving vessel that remains connected to the research ship for communications and life support
a self-propelled, free-moving submarine.
remotely piloted and allow oceanographers to study the ocean depths for long periods of time.
The boundary where the ocean and the land meet
NOT THE BOUNDARY BETWEEEN OCEANIC AND CONTINENTAL CRUSTS
The part of the continent that is covered by water
usually slopes gently from the shoreline and drops about 0.12 m every 100 m
part of the continental margin, not the deep-ocean basin.
At the seaward edge of a continental shelf is a steep slope called
The continental shelf and continental slope may be cut by deep V-shaped valleys. These deep valleys are called
form when earthquakes cause underwater landslides or when large sediment loads run down a slope.
long, narrow, and steep depression that forms on the ocean floor as a result of subduction of a tectonic plate, that runs parallel to the trend of a chain of volcanic islands or the coastline of a continent, and that may be as deep as 11 km below sea level
a large, flat, almost level area of the deep-ocean basin
cover about half of the deep-ocean basins and are the flattest regions on Earth. Layers of fine sediment cover
form underwater mountain ranges that run along the floors of all oceans
rise above sea level in only a few places, such as in Iceland
Fault-bound blocks of crust that form parallel to the ridges as the lithosphere cools and contracts
faults create areas of rough topography which run perpendicularly across the ridge.
Submerged volcanic mountains that are taller than 1 km. form in areas of increased volcanic activity called hot spots.
guyots or tablemounts
As tectonic plate movements carry islands away from a hot spot, the islands sink and are eroded by waves to form flat-topped, submerged seamounts. An intermediate stage in this process is called an atoll.
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