Mod US Final Review

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1902 coal miners strike
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Terms in this set (58)
Early 1900's muckraking writer/photographer who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. He was dedicated to using his photographic talents to help the less fortunate in New York. His photography helped capture the hardships faced by the poor. His most popular work, How the Other Half Lives, became a pivotal work that precipitated much needed reforms in the slums of New York. Jacob Riis's photography, taken up to help him document the plight of the poor, made him an important figure in the history of documentary photography.
A navy commander who, on July 8, 1853, became the first foreigner to break through the barriers that had kept Japan isolated from the rest of the world for 250 years.
Commodore Perry returned to Tokyo with nine ships in March 1854. On March 31, he signed the Treaty of Kanagawa with the Japanese government, opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade and permitting the establishment of a U.S. consulate in Japan.
-Then Japanese diplomats came and stayed in the capital Washington, they spoke about expansion of trade with the US.
-contributing to the collapse of the shogunate and ultimately the modernization of Japan.
Followed Roosevelt's order to attack Spanish forces in the Philippines when war was declared; completely destroyed the Spanish fleet stationed at Manila Bay on May 1, 1898; was immediately promoted to admiral, becoming the first hero of the war; his victory shed light on the adjusted purpose of war with Spain from just freeing Cuba to stripping Spain of all of its colonies
Twenty-sixth progressive president of the United States; he focused his efforts on trust busting, environment conservation, and strong foreign policy through the new deal
- PLATT AMENDMENT: Following its military occupation, the US successfully pressure the Cuban government to write this amendment into its constitution. It limited Cuba's treaty-making abilities, controlled its debt, and stipulated that the US could intervene militarily to restore order when it saw fit.and gave the United States control of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
- PANAMA CANAL: The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Colombians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
League of Nations (1919)Part of Woodrow Wilson's plan for lasting peace, it was the first international organization founded in to promote world peace and cooperation but was weakened when the U.S. refused to join. The organization failed to stop aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s, but laid the foundation for the creation of the UN after WWII.Nicola SaccoUnited States anarchist (born in Italy) who with Bartolomeo Vanzetti was convicted of murder and in spite of world-wide protest was executed (1891-1927)21st Amendment; U = undo 18thDetails the repeal (removal) of the Eighteenth Amendment. State laws over alcohol are to remain.Marcus Garvey (1887-1940)Universal Negro Improvement Association Black leader who advocated "black nationalism and financial independence for blacks. He started the "Back to Africa" movement. He believed blacks would not get justice in mostly white nations.Volunteerism (Great Depression)Hoover Idea People should give back to help society Local + State Govs should helpBonus Army (1932)group of jobless World War I veterans who came to Washington to lobby Congress for immediate payment of money promised them in 1945; Hoover opposed payment, and when he used the U.S. Army to drive the veterans out of the capital, he was portrayed as cruel and cold-hearted.Emergency Banking Relief Act of 1933March 6, 1933 - FDR ordered a bank holiday. Many banks were failing because they had too little capital, made too many planning errors, and had poor management. The Emergency Banking Relief Act provided for government inspection, which restored public confidence in the banks.Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)monitors the stock market and enforces laws regulating the sale of stocks and bondsNew Deal Coalition (1932-1964)coalition forged by the Democrats who dominated American politics from the 1930's to the 1960's. its basic elements were the urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals.Tennessee Valley AuthorityA New Deal agency created to generate electric power and control floods in a seven-U.S.-state region around the Tennessee River Valley . It created many dams that provided electricity as well as jobs 2.5 millionNeutrality Act of 1939 (Cash and Carry)" This act stipulated that European democracies might buy American munitions, but only if they could pay in cash and transport them in their own ships. The terms were known as "Cash-and-Carry." It rep- resented an effort to avoid war debts and protect American arms-carriers from torpedo attacks. (785)" (12.3)InterventionalistsThose who believed that providing aide to Britain would prompt other countries to expect aid.Battle of Midway (1942)Pivotal victory in the war; Battle from June 3-6 in which Japan sought to conquer Midway Island, northwest of Honolulu; Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, a high grade naval strategist, directed a small carrier force under Admiral Raymond A. Spruance against the invading Japanese fleet, the fighting was all done by aircraft and the Japanese stopped fighting after losing four vital carriers - Normandy Landings: An Allied amphibious (part-water, part-land) attack on Nazi-controlled France.Zoot Suit Riots (1943)Several thousand off-duty Mexican American soldiers and sailors, joined by hundreds of local white civilians, rampaged through downtown Los Angeles streets, assaulting Hispanics, blacks, and FilipinosEurope First StrategyIt was a strategy used to make Germany fight a two front war to defeat Hitler. Implemented because Roosevelt saw Germany as their biggest and long term threat.Japanese Internment Camps1942 *FDR authorized the evacuation of all Japanese from the West Coast into relocation centers *The government interned around 120,000 Japanese-Americans, 2/3 of them native-born US citizens *The move came with public fear of Japanese sabotage following Pearl Harbor and was in some part due to racial discrimination *In 1988, Congress voted to pay compensation to each surviving interneeWhy Truman dropped Atomic Bombs on JapanTruman did not seek to destroy Japanese culture or people; the goal was to destroy Japan's ability to make war. So, on the morning of August 6, 1945, the American B-29 bomber, the Enola Gay, dropped the world's first atom bomb over the city of Hiroshima. -Truman believed that the bombs saved Japanese lives as well. Prolonging the war was not an option for the President. -Protect U.S. citizens from a prolonged warAryan Racethe pure Germanic race, used by the Nazis to suggest a superior non-Jewish Caucasian typified by height, blonde hair, blue eyesDwight D. Eisenhowerleader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2--leader of troops in Africa and commander in DDay invasion-elected president-president during integration of Little Rock Central High SchoolChinese Civil War (1949)China became communist after a civil war between nationalists and communists. The Nationalist Party, led by Chiang Kai-Shek, fled to Taiwan. Mao Zedong established the People's Republic of China and turned the country into a communist nation.Korean WarThe conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.Red Scare (1919-1920)Brief period of mass anti-communist paranoia in the U.S., during which a number of legislatures passed anti-red statutes that often violated the right to free speech.Marshall Plana plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II in order to stabilize and rebuild their countries and prevent the spread of communism.American Family 1950sDuring the 1950s, a sense of uniformity pervaded American society. Conformity was common, as young and old alike followed group norms rather than striking out on their own. Though men and women had been forced into new employment patterns during World War II, once the war was over, traditional roles were reaffirmed.Jackie Robinson and Major League Baseballjoined the Brooklyn Dodgers, became the first African American to play major league baseball, braved death threats and rough treatment, won the hearts of millions paved the way for opportunities for other AAsMontgomery Bus Boycott/Rosa ParksIn 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.Civil Rights Act of 19641964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goalMalcolm X, Nation of IslamHe was a member of the Nation of Islam, a religious group, popularly known as the Black Muslims, founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and the Islamic religion -was killed HS: His promise to find equality for black Americans using "any means necessary" made him worrisome to whites in powerNuclear Test Ban Treaty(JFK) 1963, Wake of Cuban Missile Crisis (climax of Cold War, closest weve ever come to nuclear war) Soviets & US agree to prohibit all above-ground nuclear tests, both nations choose to avoid annihilating the human race w/ nuclear war, France and China did not signEqual Pay Act of 1963An amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act, this act requires equal pay for men and women doing equal work.Warren CommissionThe U.S. commission in charge with investigating the assassination of JFK. It came to the conclusion that Oswald was alone in his actions and advised to reform presidential security measures.Nationality Act of 1965abolished an earlier quota system based on national origin and established a new immigration policy based on reuniting immigrant families and attracting skilled labor to the United States.Gulf of Tonkin ResolutionThe Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.Operation Rolling Thunder (1965)President Johnson's plan of entrance into the Vietnam War, which involved *regular full-scale bombing runs against North Vietnam, as well as the entrance of some 184,000 American troops on the side of the South Vietnamese.*LBJ Credibility GapCredibility gap is a term that came into wide use with journalism, political and public discourse in the United States during the 1960s and 1970s. At the time, it was most frequently used to describe public skepticism about the Lyndon B. Johnson administration's statements and policies on the Vietnam War.Tet Offensive1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentimentVietnamizationA war policy in Vietnam initiated by Nixon in June of 1969. This strategy called for dramatic reduction of U.S. troops followed by an increased injection of S. Vietnamese troops in their place. A considerable success, this plan allowed for a drop in troops to 24,000 by 1972. . This policy became the cornerstone of the so-called "Nixon Doctrine". As applied to Vietnam, it was labeled "Vietnamization".Strategic Arms Limitation Treatyseries of meetings in the 70s, in which leaders of the US and the Soviet Union agreed to limit their nations' stocks of nuclear weaponsVietnam War HawksThe ones who wanted war were known as the "Hawks" and who didn't were known as the "Doves." The hawks believed that due to the aggression of North Vietnamese it forced the US into war. They thought that the United States should do what ever was necessary to win.Baby Boomers (1946-1964)- Civil Rights - Vietnam - JFK - Tendency to question authority and government - Generation of Achievers - Value dignity, worth, family is #1 priority, like to feel respected and valued - Thinking about to be whole without working - Currently this is the single largest economic group in the US (28% of the population) - For Counseling: -- Want to think about increased health concerns, aging, time management -- Think about retirement issues -- Empty-nesters...second part of life -- Trust doctors but want to verify -- Healthier than their parents, more cognitively active -- More social...more connectedSexual Revolution of the 1960'sLed by Elvis Presley, Marilyn Monroe and the Playboy magazine. Publicized sex for the first time. marketing of birth control made possible what "free lovers" had long demanded-the separation of sex from procreation; central to the "second wave" of feminismChicano MovementThe Mexican-American movement that sought political and social justice. The Chicano Movement addressed negative stereotyping of Mexicans, this stereotyping was addressed through works of literary and visual arts.American Indian Movement(AIM) A Native American organization founded in 1968 to protest government policies and injustices suffered by Native Americans; in 1973, organized the armed occupation of Wounded Knee, South Dakota.Three Mile Island crisispennsylvania nuclear power plant almost suffered a meltdown led to a backlash against nuclear power but did not aid the passage of Carter's energy program (1979)Richard Nixon (1969-1974) Republican1968 and 1972; Republican; Vietnam: advocated "Vietnamization" (replace US troops with Vietnamese), but also bombed Cambodia/Laos, created a "credibility gap," Paris Peace Accords ended direct US involvement; economy-took US off gold standard (currency valued by strength of economy); created the Environmental Protection Agency, was president during first moon landing; SALT I and new policy of detente between US and Soviet Union; Watergate scandal: became first and only president to resignStar Wars Programa program first initiated under President Ronald Reagan. The intent of this program was to develop a sophisticated anti-ballistic missile system in order to prevent missile attacks from other countries, specifically the Soviet UnionNAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)Allows open trade between the US, Mexico, and Canada.Globalizationthe process by which businesses or other organizations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale.