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Chapter 9 Nervous System

Hole's Essential of Human Anatomy and Physiology
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Functions of Nervous System
Sensory Input, Integration, and Motor Output
Structural Classification Of Nervous System
Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
CNS
Central Nervous System
PNS
Peripheral Nervous System
Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain and Spinal Cord, Dorsal, Integration
Peripheral Nervous Sytem (PNS)
Nerves (Cranial and Spinal), outside of CNS
Functional classification of PNS
Sensory Division, Motor Divsion
Sensory Division
Sends information into CNS
Motor Division
Sends information out of CNS
Effectors of PNS Motor Division
brings about change (muscles and glands)
Somatic
Voluntary, Skeletal Muscle Tissue
Autonomic
Involuntary, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle
division of autonomic
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
Neuraglia
support cells of CNS
Astrocytes
bridge linking capillary to neuron, diffusion of Oxygen to neurons
Microglia cell
a type of cell that functions as a phagocyte in the nervous system to remove debris left by dead or dying neurons and glia
Phagocyte
engulfs another cell or foreign organism and destroys it. Cleaner
Ependymal Cell
has cilia, pumps
Oligodendrocyte
insulates neurons, increases impulse speed in CNS
Schwann cell
cell that insulates neurons, increases impulse speed
Satellite cells
protects cell body of neuron
Neuron
impulse, signal
Anatomy of Neuron
Cell body, branches
Branches of Neuron
Dendrites, Axon
Dendrites
sends information towards the cell body
Axon
carries information away from the cell body
2 parts of axon
Axon terminals and Myelin
Axon terminals
neurotransmitters
Myelin
insulation, increases impulse speed
2 kinds of Matter
Gray Matter and White Matter
Gray Matter
lacks myelin, integration
White Matter
has myelin, communication;transferring information from one location to the next
Classifications of Neurons
Sensory Neurons, Motor Neurons, and Interneurons
Sensory Neurons
Sends information towards the CNS, Sensory division
Motor Neurons
Sends information away from the CNS
Interneurons
Integration, links sensory neurons to motor neurons
Physiology of Neurons
impulse, reflex pathway
Polarized membrane
positive outside, negative inside
Depolarize the membrane
gates open, NA+ flow in
Repolarize the membrane
pumping out of NA+
Order of impulse
Polarized membrane, Depolarize the membrane, Repolarize the membrane
Reflex Pathway
Receptor, Sensory Neuron, Integration, Motor Neuron, Effector
Functional Anatomy of the Brain
Cerebral Hemisphere and Diencephalon
Cerebral Hemisphere
Cerebrum
Surface of Cerebrum
Gyri, Sulci, and Fissures
Gyri
ridges of tissues that fold back and forth
Sulci
Inward indentation
Fissures
Deep Sulci or deep inward indentation
Lobes of Cerebrum
Parietal, Occipital, Temporal, Frontal
Parietal Lobe
primary sensory area or primary somatic area; touch
Occipital Lobe
vision
Temporal Lobe
hearing
Frontal Lobe
primary motor area; skeletal muscle control
Parts of Diencephalon
Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Epithalamus
Thalamus
router; sends information to appropriate region of brain
Hypothalamus
controls pituitary gland
Pituitary Gland
controls endocrine gland
Parts of Epithalamus
Choroid plexus, Pineal gland, Brain Stem, Cerebellum
Choroid Plexus
knot of capillaries
Pineal Body
regulates the body's biological clock+produces melatonin
Parts Of Brain Stem
Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata
Midbrain
posterior, vision and hearing reflexes
Pons
bulb, breathing and respiration
Medulla Oblongata
sets out basic rhythm for breathing and swallowing
Cerebellum
Muscle timing-contraction and relaxation of muscle, equilibrium and balance
Protection of CNS
Meninges, Cerebrospinal fluid, Blood
Parts of Meninges
Dura Mater, Arachnoid Mater, Pia Mater
Dura Mater
Outer Part of Meninges
Arachnoid Mater
Middle part of Meninges, weblike
Pia Mater
Inner part of Meninges
Cerebrospinal fluid
cushion, surrounds and protects with Choroid Plexus
Blood
brain barrier, membrane, very selective of things crossing into CNS
Blood allows to cross
Oxygen, water, glucose, amino acids
Blood will not allow to cross
cellular waste, toxins, most drugs
Blood may allow to cross
alcohol, nicotine, anesthetic gases
Cerebrovascular accident
Stroke; clot or broken vessel
Spinal Cord
Occipital to L1, 31 pairs of nerves, Cauda Equina, enlargements
# of nerves in the spinal cord
31
Cauda Equina
long hair like nerves
Two enlargements of Spinal Cord
Cervical enlargement and Lumbar enlargement
Cervical Enlargement
Arms
Lumbar Enlargement
Legs
Matter in the Spinal Cord
Gray matter is inside White Matter is outside
Roots of Spinal Cord
Dorsal Roots and Ventral Roots
Dorsal Roots
Sensory in; to the back
Ventral Roots
Motor out; towards the front
White Matter in the spinal cord
sends information up to the brain
Neurons
bundle of nerve fibers
3 parts of covering of neurons
Endoneurium, Perineurium, Epineurium
Endoneurium
wraps individual neurons
Perineurium
wraps fascile(bundle)
Epineurium
wraps whole nerve
Nerves
bundle of neurons
Sensory nerves
towards the brain
Motor nerves
away from the brain
Cranial Nerves
12 pairs; brain
Spinal Nerves
31 pairs; spinal cord
Division of Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
Sympathetic Division
Fight or flight division, increase blood pressure and respiration and turns off stomach
Parasympathetic Division
Resting and Digesting Division, decreases BP and respiration turns stomach back on
The Nervous System is composed of
Neurons and Neuroglia
Sensory receptors
end of peripheral nerves, gather information and convert it to nerve impulses
The central nervous system is made up of
brain and spinal cord
The peripheral nervous system is made up of
cranial and spinal nerves
Microglia cells
small cells that phagocytize bacterial cells and cellular debris found in the CNS
Oligodendrocytes
form myelin in the brain and spinal cord found in the CNS
Astrocytes
near blood vessels and support structures, aid in metabolism, and respond to brain injury found in the CNS
Ependymal Cells
cover the inside of ventricles amd form choroid plexuses within the ventricles found in the CNS
Schwann Cells
cells are the myelin producing neuraglia of the PNS
Node of Ranvier
Narrow gaps in the myelin sheath
Neurilemma
the outer layer of covering in the peripheral neurons