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Hole's Essential of Human Anatomy and Physiology

Functions of Nervous System

Sensory Input, Integration, and Motor Output

Structural Classification Of Nervous System

Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System


Central Nervous System


Peripheral Nervous System

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Brain and Spinal Cord, Dorsal, Integration

Peripheral Nervous Sytem (PNS)

Nerves (Cranial and Spinal), outside of CNS

Functional classification of PNS

Sensory Division, Motor Divsion

Sensory Division

Sends information into CNS

Motor Division

Sends information out of CNS

Effectors of PNS Motor Division

brings about change (muscles and glands)


Voluntary, Skeletal Muscle Tissue


Involuntary, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle

division of autonomic

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic


support cells of CNS


bridge linking capillary to neuron, diffusion of Oxygen to neurons

Microglia cell

a type of cell that functions as a phagocyte in the nervous system to remove debris left by dead or dying neurons and glia


engulfs another cell or foreign organism and destroys it. Cleaner

Ependymal Cell

has cilia, pumps


insulates neurons, increases impulse speed in CNS

Schwann cell

cell that insulates neurons, increases impulse speed

Satellite cells

protects cell body of neuron


impulse, signal

Anatomy of Neuron

Cell body, branches

Branches of Neuron

Dendrites, Axon


sends information towards the cell body


carries information away from the cell body

2 parts of axon

Axon terminals and Myelin

Axon terminals



insulation, increases impulse speed

2 kinds of Matter

Gray Matter and White Matter

Gray Matter

lacks myelin, integration

White Matter

has myelin, communication;transferring information from one location to the next

Classifications of Neurons

Sensory Neurons, Motor Neurons, and Interneurons

Sensory Neurons

Sends information towards the CNS, Sensory division

Motor Neurons

Sends information away from the CNS


Integration, links sensory neurons to motor neurons

Physiology of Neurons

impulse, reflex pathway

Polarized membrane

positive outside, negative inside

Depolarize the membrane

gates open, NA+ flow in

Repolarize the membrane

pumping out of NA+

Order of impulse

Polarized membrane, Depolarize the membrane, Repolarize the membrane

Reflex Pathway

Receptor, Sensory Neuron, Integration, Motor Neuron, Effector

Functional Anatomy of the Brain

Cerebral Hemisphere and Diencephalon

Cerebral Hemisphere


Surface of Cerebrum

Gyri, Sulci, and Fissures


ridges of tissues that fold back and forth


Inward indentation


Deep Sulci or deep inward indentation

Lobes of Cerebrum

Parietal, Occipital, Temporal, Frontal

Parietal Lobe

primary sensory area or primary somatic area; touch

Occipital Lobe


Temporal Lobe


Frontal Lobe

primary motor area; skeletal muscle control

Parts of Diencephalon

Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Epithalamus


router; sends information to appropriate region of brain


controls pituitary gland

Pituitary Gland

controls endocrine gland

Parts of Epithalamus

Choroid plexus, Pineal gland, Brain Stem, Cerebellum

Choroid Plexus

knot of capillaries

Pineal Body

regulates the body's biological clock+produces melatonin

Parts Of Brain Stem

Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata


posterior, vision and hearing reflexes


bulb, breathing and respiration

Medulla Oblongata

sets out basic rhythm for breathing and swallowing


Muscle timing-contraction and relaxation of muscle, equilibrium and balance

Protection of CNS

Meninges, Cerebrospinal fluid, Blood

Parts of Meninges

Dura Mater, Arachnoid Mater, Pia Mater

Dura Mater

Outer Part of Meninges

Arachnoid Mater

Middle part of Meninges, weblike

Pia Mater

Inner part of Meninges

Cerebrospinal fluid

cushion, surrounds and protects with Choroid Plexus


brain barrier, membrane, very selective of things crossing into CNS

Blood allows to cross

Oxygen, water, glucose, amino acids

Blood will not allow to cross

cellular waste, toxins, most drugs

Blood may allow to cross

alcohol, nicotine, anesthetic gases

Cerebrovascular accident

Stroke; clot or broken vessel

Spinal Cord

Occipital to L1, 31 pairs of nerves, Cauda Equina, enlargements

# of nerves in the spinal cord


Cauda Equina

long hair like nerves

Two enlargements of Spinal Cord

Cervical enlargement and Lumbar enlargement

Cervical Enlargement


Lumbar Enlargement


Matter in the Spinal Cord

Gray matter is inside White Matter is outside

Roots of Spinal Cord

Dorsal Roots and Ventral Roots

Dorsal Roots

Sensory in; to the back

Ventral Roots

Motor out; towards the front

White Matter in the spinal cord

sends information up to the brain


bundle of nerve fibers

3 parts of covering of neurons

Endoneurium, Perineurium, Epineurium


wraps individual neurons


wraps fascile(bundle)


wraps whole nerve


bundle of neurons

Sensory nerves

towards the brain

Motor nerves

away from the brain

Cranial Nerves

12 pairs; brain

Spinal Nerves

31 pairs; spinal cord

Division of Autonomic Nervous System

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic

Sympathetic Division

Fight or flight division, increase blood pressure and respiration and turns off stomach

Parasympathetic Division

Resting and Digesting Division, decreases BP and respiration turns stomach back on

The Nervous System is composed of

Neurons and Neuroglia

Sensory receptors

end of peripheral nerves, gather information and convert it to nerve impulses

The central nervous system is made up of

brain and spinal cord

The peripheral nervous system is made up of

cranial and spinal nerves

Microglia cells

small cells that phagocytize bacterial cells and cellular debris found in the CNS


form myelin in the brain and spinal cord found in the CNS


near blood vessels and support structures, aid in metabolism, and respond to brain injury found in the CNS

Ependymal Cells

cover the inside of ventricles amd form choroid plexuses within the ventricles found in the CNS

Schwann Cells

cells are the myelin producing neuraglia of the PNS

Node of Ranvier

Narrow gaps in the myelin sheath


the outer layer of covering in the peripheral neurons

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