College Psych Chap 1-3
Terms in this set (154)
nativism and innate knowledge
"tabula rosa" and philosophical empiricism
all knowledge acquired through experience
how likely that the twin has the same disease
little boy became scared of white, furry things because of the loud noise that was followed when something white and furry was introduced to him (generalization)
Skinner Box- reinforcement
the scientific study of mind and behavior
the private inner experiences of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings/ an ever streaming flow of consciousness
observable actions of human beings and non-human animals/ the things we do in the world by ourselves or with others
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
a technique that allows scientists to scan a brain to determine which parts are active when a person reads a word, sees a face, learns a new skill, or remembers a personal experience
physiologist that studied reaction time
structuralism, consciousness, analytic introspection
the subjective observation of ones own experience
an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings
the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment
allows us to recognize our families, see predators before they see us, and avoid stumbling into oncoming traffic
allows us to organize our thoughts and communicate them to others, which enables us to form social groups and cooperate
allows us to avoid solving the same problems over and over again every time we encounter them and to keep in mind what we are doing and why
allows us to react quickly to events that have life or death significance, and they enable us to form strong social bonds
tried to analyze the mind by breaking it down into its basic components
focused on how mental abilities allow people to adapt to their environments
the philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn
argued body and mind are fundamentally different
how mental activity can be reconciled with physical behavior
argued that the mind and body aren't different and that the mind is what the brain does
developed theory known as phrenology
specific mental abilities and characteristics are located in specific regions of the brain
surgically removed specific parts of animal's brains and found that this changed their actions and movements
worked with a patient that suffered damage to left side of brain (which affected his speaking)
the study of biological processes in the human body
trained participants to respond when he applied a stimulus to different parts of the leg
a person's subjective experience of the world and mind
a temporary loss of cognitive or motor functions, usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences
Flour end and Broca conducted research that demonstrated and connection between...
The mind and the brain
Helmholtz conducted a famous experiment on...
Wundt is credited with...
Founding Psych as a scientific discipline
Wundt and his students sought to analyze the basic elements that constitute the mind, an approach called..
James and ____ helped establish functionalism as a major school of psychological thought in North America
The functional approach to psych was inspired by...
Darwin's On the Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection
To understand human behavior, Charcot and Janet studied people with...
Theory that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings
Behaviorism involves the study of
Observable actions and responses
Pavlov and Watson's experiments centered on...
Stimulus and Response
The study of mental processes such as perception and memory
Many errors pilots make are a result of...
Limited human cognitive capacity to handle incoming information
The use of scanning techniques to observe the brain in action and to see which parts are involved in which operations helped the development of...
Central to evolutionary psychology is the ___ function that minds and brains serve
Social psychology differs most from other psychological approaches in its emphasis on...
Cultural psychology emphasizes that
culture shapes some, but not all psychological phenomena
became the first woman president of the APA
did research that influenced the Supreme Court decision to ban segregation in public schools
the belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation
a falsifiable prediction
The methods of psychological investigation take ____ into account because when people know they are being studied, they don't always behave as they otherwise would
when a measure produces the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing
aspects of an observational setting that cause people to behave as they think they should
the purpose is hidden from both the observer and the person being observed
the direction and strength of a correlation
When two variables are correlated, what keeps us from concluding that one is the cause and the other one is the effect?
the possibility of a third-variable correlation
the characteristic of an experiment that allows conclusions about causal relationships to be drawn
an experiment that operationally defines variables in a realistic way
Research suggests that people are usually not...
open to seeing both sides of an issue, able to reason without emotion, and able to arrive at conclusions based solely on facts
When people find evidence that confirms their beliefs they often...
tend to stop looking
Psychologists are ethically are required to do what three things when reporting research results?
report truthfully, share credit for research, and make date available for further research
function of a neuron
processing info, communicating with other neurons, and sending messages to body organs and muscles
receives signals from other neurons and relays them to the cell body
Signals are transmitted from one neuron to another across
receives information from the external world and conveys this information to the brain via the spinal cord
an electrical signal that is conducted along the length of a neuron's axon to the synapse
the chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to receiving neuron's dendrites
autonomic nervous system
automatically controls the organs of the body
part of the hindbrain that coordinates fine motor skills
part of the brain that is involved in movement and arousal
regulates body temp, hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior
What explains the apparent beneficial effects of cardiovascular exercise on aspects of brain function and cognitive performance?
Undergoes the greatest development during the course of embryonic brain growth
The first true central nervous system appeared in...
set the range of variation in populations within a given environment
The best way to identify brain areas that are involved in specific types of motor, cognitive, or emotional processing
the part of the neuron that coordinates information-processing tasks and keeps the cell alive
the part of a neuron that receives information from other neurons and relays it to the cell body
the part of a neuron that carries information to other neurons, muscles, or glands
cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information-processing tasks
an insulating layer of fatty material
support cells found in the nervous system
the junction or region between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another
neurons that carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement
neurons that connect sensory neurons, motor neurons or other interneurons
the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a neuron's cell membrane
the time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated
knoblike structures that branch out from an axon
parts of the cell membrane that receive the neurotransmitter and initiate or prevent a new electric signal
a neurotransmitter involved in a number of functions, including voluntary motor control
a neurotransmitter that regulates motor behavior, motivation, pleasure, and emotional arousal
the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain
the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
a neurotransmitter that is particularly involved in states of vigilance, or heightened awareness of dangers in the environment
a neurotransmitter that is involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, eating and aggressive behavior
chemicals that act within the pain pathways and emotion centers of the brain
drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter
drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter
central nervous system (CNS)
the part of the nervous system that is composed of the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the part of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system to the body's organs and muscles
somatic nervous system
a set of nerves that conveys info between voluntary muscles and the central nervous system
sympathetic nervous system
a set of nerves that prepares the body for action in challenging or threatening situations
parasympathetic nervous system
a set of nerves that helps the body return to a normal resting state
simple pathways in the nervous system that rapidly generate muscle contractions
an area of the brain that coordinates information coming into and out of the spinal cord
an extension of the spinal cord into the skull that coordinates heart rate, circulation, and respiration
a brain structure that regulates sleep, wakefulness, and levels of arousal
a brain structure that relays info from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain
a part of the midbrain that orients an organism in the environment
a part of the midbrain that is involved in movement and arousal
the outermost later of the brain, visible to the naked eye and divided into two hemispheres
aress of the forebrain housed under the cerebral cortex near the very center of the brain
a subcortial structure that relays and filters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex
the "master gland" of the body's hormone-producing system, which releases hormones that direct the functions of many other glands in the body
a group of forebrain structures including the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, and the amygdala, which are involved in motivation, emotion, learning, and memory
a set of subcortical structures that directs intentional movements
a thick band of nerve fibers that connects large areas of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports communication of information across the hemispheres
processes visual information
processing info about touch
processes hearing and language
has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgment
areas of the cerebral cortex that are composed of neurons that help provide sense and meaning to information registered in the cortex
neurons that are active when an animal performs a behavior, such as reaching for or manipulating an object, and are also activated when another animal observes that animal performing the same behavior
the major unit of hereditary transmission
strands of DNA wound around each other in a double-helix configuration
environmental influences that determine whether or not genes are expressed, or the degree to which they are expressed, without altering the basic DNA sequences that constitute the genes themselves
chemical modifications to DNA that can turn genes on or off
adding a methyl group to DNA
adding chemical modifications to proteins called histones that are involved in packaging DNA
a measure of the variability of behavioral traits among individuals that can be accounted for by genetic factors
nature is to nurture as
nativism is to philosophical empiricism
Helmholtz was a(n) _____ who studied _____.
physiologist; reaction time
By asking people to pay attention to and record their feelings and perceptions of an event, Wilhelm Wundt used the method of _____ to analyze the basic elements of the mind.
William James suggested that consciousness should be examined depending on the purpose of the mental processes involved, as suggested by _____, rather than trying to break it down into specific elements as suggested by _____.
The school of psychology developed by William James is most similar to which more modern field of psychology?
Audrey is a clinical psychologist who emphasizes the positive potential in her clients and who feels it is her job to gently guide them in realizing this potential. Audrey is which type of therapist?
_____ stresses the importance of studying observable behaviors and ignores the mental processes involved in different tasks.
In Pavlov's classic experiment, the sound of a tone was the _____ that produced a _____ of salivating in dogs, even in the absence of food.
Cognitive psychology addressed the critiques of behaviorism by applying scientific methods to the study of,,,
mental processes, such as memory, perception, and thought
did research in which rats' maze performance was measured before and after brain surgery
Chad explains his irresponsible spending by speculating that he shares genes with ancestors who had no need to save for the future because their lives were brutish and short. Which field of psychology is most consistent with his view?
To better understand Nazi atrocities, social psychologists began to study...
conformity and obedience
treats individuals with psychological problems and is allowed to prescribe medication
Most psychologists today work
in clinical or health-related fields