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Terms in this set (19)
The study of inheritance
the field of study that quantifies patterns of variation within populations (gene pools), divergence among population, and infers the evolutionary forces that have produced those patterns
an attribute of an individual such as color, size or shape. Can be physical, physiological, chemical, etc.
A trait is "heritable" or "inherited" if it is controlled at least in part by genetic information. Some traits are determined entirely by genotype, but most traits are controlled in part by genes and in part by non-genetic environmental influences. A trait that has absolutely no genetic basis is not heritable.
The physical basis for an inherited trait; the entity transmitted from parent to offspring
Deoxyribonucleic acid, the chemical basis for inheritance. The exact form of DNA corresponds to "genes"
All of the DNA in an organism
Used almost interchangeably with gene, although "locus" is used more often when we have a detailed understanding of a trait's inheritance, its corresponding DNA sequence, and the location of that DNA sequence on a particular chromosome
A heritable change in the genetic material. If the change is within gene (e.g., change in one or more base pairs, insertion or deletion of one or more base pairs), it will create a new allele. Some mutations involve multiple genes, or even deletion/duplication of entire chromosomes.
One form of a gene (i.e., a specific DNA sequence). There are many ways to give shorthand names for different alleles.
(antiquated term for) the most common allele in nature for a particular gene
The genetic composition of an individual for a particular trait. For a nuclear gene, all gene copies must be declared.
The appearance of the individual regarding a particular trait (or, how the trait is "expressed"). Multiple genotypes might produce the same phenotype
Refers to the mechanisms that relate genotype to phenotype (e.g., biochemical, physiological, developmental)
(For a nuclear gene in a diploid organism): an individual with two different alleles for the gene
(For a nuclear gene in a diploid organism): an individual with two identical alleles for the gene
A group of individuals within a single species, with the capability of interbreeding, found in a single geographic area, that mate randomly or without regards to spatial position. This is clearly a theoretical abstraction, and often delineating population boundaries in nature is difficult
(referring to one locus) Possessing more than one allele. A locus with one allele is monomorphic. The distinction between polymorphic and monomorphic can be made for a population, a group of populations, or an entire species
change in the genetic composition of a population or species over time. Note that the change does not have to "take over" 100% of the population, so even a slight change in allele frequencies constitutes an evolutionary change
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