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American History NCFE Review - Part I
Terms in this set (74)
Exchange of goods, people, diseases, and ideas between Europe and the Americas
1607 - 1st successful attempt to create a settlement in Virginia
If landowners paid for someone's journey to the colonies, the landowner would receive 50 acres of land.
Virginia House of Burgesses
1st legislative assembly of elected representatives in North America
1620, in today Massachusetts, 2nd permanent English settlement in North America
set of agreed upon rules that governed the Pilgrims in Plymouth Colony
Landmark document in American democratic history
Massachusetts Bay Colony
1630, established by John Winthrop, grew to include Plymouth settlement
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
an economic practice in which a nation is entirely self-sufficient economically.
a series of laws restricting colonial trade passed in 1651
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies.
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America, many Africans died during the journey
French and Indian War
1754-1763, war fought in North America between England and France over control of North American land (Ohio River Valley)
Proclamation of 1763
issued by British government, banned all colonial settlements west of the Appalachian mountains. Angered the colonists
1765, Passed by Parliament that placed a tax on newspapers and official documents sold in the colonies. FIRST DIRECT TAX ON COLONISTS.
1767, Passed by Parliament that placed a tax on leads, glass, paint and tea (imports coming from England to the colonies)
1770, Armed clash between unruly Bostonian protesters and locally stationed British soldiers, killing 5 people. This event becomes propaganda for the colonists.
Boston Tea Party
December 16, 1773 - a group of 200 colonists dressed as Mohawks boarded 3 British tea ships and dumped 18,000 pound of tea into Boston Harbor.
1774, series of laws passed by Parliament in response to Boston Tea Party;
Shut down Boston Harbor because colonists refused to pay for the destroyed tea
Quartering Act - forced housing of British soldiers in colonial homes
Boston under martial law
Lexington and Concord
1775, "The shot heard around the world," the first battle between British soldiers and colonial Minutemen
Second Continental Congress
Summer 1775, delegates from the colonies met to discuss problems with England/King George III; decided to recognize the Minutemen as the Continental Army, appoint Washington as Commander in Chief, and authorized the printing of colonial money.
Declaration of Independence
1776, document written by Thomas Jefferson and issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain. Lists grievances.
Battle of Saratoga
1777, A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war by creating an alliance with the French.
Battle of Yorktown
1781, British soldiers under General Cornwallis surrendered the war after being surrounded by Continental and French troops; signaled England's defeat and the colonies' independence
Treaty of Paris
Ended the war between the former colonists and England, recognized American Independence and drew the nation's borders (Canada to Florida; Atlantic Ocean to Mississippi River)
Enlightenment philosopher who believed in the idea that government got its power from the "consent of the governed." Believed in "natural rights" (life, liberty, and property)
Baron de Montesquieu
Enlightenment philosopher who believed in the separation of powers (legislative, executive, and judicial).
This document outlines the role of the different branches of government as well as state powers and how to make amendments. Creates and forms our government.
Articles of Confederation
1781, document that outlined the roles of the federal and state governments. It was our first governing document.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
procedure for dividing western lands into territories which would later become states
1787, a revolt led by former Revolutionary War captain Daniel Shays to prevent judges in Massachusetts from foreclosing on the farms of farmers who could not pay taxes the state had levied. Results in the Constitutional Convention being called.
Great Compromise (a.k.a. Connecticut Compromise)
developed by Roger Sherman, proposed a 2 house legislature
Senate - 2 representatives per state chosen by state legislature
House of Representatives - # of representatives based on population elected by citizen voters
1787, called for three-fifths of a state's population to be counted in the total state population
settled the debate on how large slave populations in southern states would contribute to the representation of those states in Congress
checks and balances
a system to ensure that no governmental branch becomes too powerful
Supporters of the Constitution
favored a strong federal government
Opponents to the Constitution
favored a smaller federal government due to fear of an overpowerful central government
1787-1788, a series of 85 essays defending the Constitution, written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay
Bill of Rights
set of 10 amendments to the Constitution that protect the individual rights of citizens, ratified in 1791
satisfied the Anti-federalists enough to ratify the Constitution
Judiciary Act of 1789
A law passed by the first Congress to establish the federal court system
established the # of justices (6), appeals courts, and district courts
emphasized that federal laws are supreme
Hamilton's Economic Plan
Plan to raise money to pay off national debts.
1. sell treasury bonds to wealthy investors
2. levy excise taxes on popular goods
3. impose tariffs on imports to encourage US industry
4. establish a national bank
strict interpretation of the Constitution
belief that the Constitution forbids anything that is not explicitly allowed
loose interpretation of the Constitution
belief that the Constitution allows for anything, unless explicitly forbidden
what the Anti-federalists turned into
supported by Thomas Jefferson
wanted a weaker central government, rule by the people, and an economy based in agriculture
mostly in the south and west
favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution
opposed the national bank
1794 protest against the government's tax on whiskey by small frontier farmers.
Spain granted the Americans access to Mississippi River, access to the Port of New Orleans, and the large disputed territory north of Florida.
Treaty negotiated with England
stated that British troops would be removed from US soil but British fur traders were allowed to stay
A 1798 incident in which French officials demanded a bribe from U.S. diplomats which insulted the US
led to anti-French/European sentiments in the US
started an unofficial naval war with France
Alien and Sedition Acts
1798 acts passed by Congress under Adams during the undeclared war with France that limited the freedoms of speech and press and restricted the liberty of non US citizens and immigrants
led to growing discontent with Federalist party
Virginia and Kentucky Resolves
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Marbury v. Madison
Case in which the Supreme Court first established the power of judicial review by finding that a law made by Congress was unconstitutional
Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws
how the judicial branch "interprets" the law
1803 purchase of the Louisiana territory from France. Made by Jefferson, this doubled the size of the US. Gives the U.S. full ownership of the Mississippi River.
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into British military service
Battle of New Orleans
1814, A battle that happened after the Treaty of Ghent was signed. General Andrew Jackson defeated the British in a stunning victory
Treaty of Ghent
1814 agreement that ended the War of 1812, did not address the problems that led to the start of the war
Battle of Fallen Timbers
1794 battle in which US troops defeated the Miami Confederacy of Native Americans
Natives lose all hope of keeping land in the Ohio area
Economy in the North
based on industry
factories, mass production
location for the Industrial Revolution
period in US history when the northeast became more industrialized
factory system expands due to technological advances (interchangeable parts, mass production, etc)
invented by Eli Whitney
allowed cotton to be processed much faster than before
increased the demand for slavery in the South due to increased cotton production
nickname for the importance of cotton in the south
Speaker of the House, Created the American System.
Passed a bill that would lower tariffs over a 10 year period after the South Carolina Nullification Crisis. Created the Missouri Compromise. Known and the Great Compromiser
closed the western hemisphere to European colonization and promised that the US would stay our of European affairs
remained US foreign policy until World War I
Spain ceded Florida and parts of the Oregon Territory to the US
admitted Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state
drew a line across the Louisiana Territory at 36-30
above line = slavery banned
below line = slavery allowed to expand.
the term given to the outcome of the Election of 1824.
Jacksonians claimed Adams and Clay stole the presidency from Jackson.
McCullough v. Maryland
Court case where Chief Justice Marshall ruled that states could not tax federal banks.
"The power to tax is the power to destroy."
7th POTUS (1828-1836)
appealed to the "common man"
commonly disregarded the Constitution and Supreme Court decisions
Legacy includes: spoils system, Indian removal, vetoing the recharter bill for the National Bank
Indian Removal Act of 1830
passed by Jackson's administration
forced Native Americans to move west with government funded treaties
Eventually led to the Cherokee Trail of Tears
Worcester v. Georgia
Worcestor, US citizen and missonary acting on the part of the Cherokee nation, sued the state of Georgia to stop pushing Cherokees off land.
Chief Justice Marshall rules in Worcester's favor (Cherokee can stay)
Jackson ignores the ruling and forces removal anyway
Trail of Tears
forced march of 16,000 Cherokee Indians from Georgia to present day Oklahoma.
more than 4,000 Cherokees died of hunger, disease, or exposure to winter weather.
Tariff of Abominations
Protective tariff, named by Calhoun and southern opponents
catalyst for the South Carolina Nullification crisi
Term for state banks that received government money in 1833 when Jackson vetoed the BUS recharter bill.
Named "pet" banks because most of the banks received the funds because of the spoils system.
Eventually lost money and failed due to the Panic of 1837.
A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify the Tariff of Abominations
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
George Washington's Presidency
Unit 3 (Goal 4) Federalist Era
Road to Revolution
Federalist Era Vocabulary
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Civics: Unit 10, Macroeconomics
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Unit 6 (Judicial Branch )