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217 terms

Psychology Test 2

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Perceptual Hypothesis
a guess about what a sensation represents that is held until more information is available
psi phenomena
includes clairvoyance, telepathy, and precognition
sleep apnea
a sleep disturbance characterized by snoring, short sliences, and gasps
infants sleep in
2-4 hour blocks of time
the surest way to alter human consciousness is to...
administer a psychoactive drug
a cheetas scrambling up a rocky slope in montana is likely to be perceived as...
a mountain lion because perception is guided by expectations
inductive reasoning
goes from the specific to the general and is analogous to bottom-up processing
accomodation
the process where the lens of the eye changes shape
interneurons
the vast majority of cells in the body's information-processing system
arithmetic reasoning
typically controlled by left hemispere
human genetic diversity
consists of the variationsin the sequence of our nucleotides
chromosomes, words, and genes
books, words, and letters
gender schema theory
when jorge wouldn't play leap-frog with his mother because it was a "girl's game"
taste buds
mainly located on the top side of the tongue especially around the edges
selective attention
ex: that you do not hear the traffic outside of your psychology class because you are ENGROSSED in the lecture
frequency sound theory
explains how sounds up to 4000 hertz reach the brain
the electromagnetic spectrum
includes visible light, infrared, ultraviolet, radio waves, television broadcasts, gamma rays, and other energies
having two ears separated by several inches...
helps identify the direction form which a sound originates
retinal disparity
is similiar to the ability to perceive visual depth
nativists
believe that the depth perception is inborn
cross-cultural experiences
suggest that pictorial cue for depth percption are learned
top-down processing
the analysis of information starting with pre-existing knowledge in order to organize features into a meaningful whole
precognition
the porported ability to predict future events
highway engineers
sometimes paint stripes on freeway off-ramps to enhance the perception of depth, using the cue of texture gradients
pereptual expectancy
with attribute from a widespread increase in the reported sightings of UFOs following newpaper reports of similiar sightings
the biases and errors of people's everyday judgements illustrate
...
the need for critical thinking, curious skepticism, and open-minded humility
when your best friend criticizes psychological research for being artificial and having no relevance to behaviour in real life, in defense of psychologies use of laboratory experiments you say...
that psychologists intentionally study behavior in simplified life environments in orderto gain greater control over variables and to test general principles that help to explain many behaviors
alicia adams demonstrates the scientific attitude of skeptism by...
insisting that Dr. Phillip's theory of aggression be checked against observable evidence
auditory stimulation
first processed in the temporal lobes
sight
created in the occipial lobe
high reasoning
processed in the frontal lobe
parkinson's disease involves
the death of nerve cells that produce a vital neurotransmitter called dopamine
compared with right-handers, left-handers...
are more likely to experience headaches and more likely to suffer from asthma
andrew's injury was located in his central nervous system because
he damaged his spinal cord and consequently suffered paraysis of his legs in a TRAGIC diving accident
a phrenologist would suggest that
the shape of a person's skull indicates the extent to which that the individual is argumentative and aggresive
the thamalus
relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex
the hippocampus of the limbic system
plays an essential role in the formation of new memories
in resting state, the axon is polarized with
mostly postively charged ions outside and negatively charged ions inside
jessica likely injured her cerebellum because
she experienced difficulty keeping her balance after receiving a blow to the back of her head
the body's natural production of endorphins is likely...
to be increased by heroin use and decreased by acupuncture
neursurgeons severe the corpus callosum in human patients
to reduce epileptic seizures
if a neurosurgeon stimulated parts of your sensory cortex
you would experience a sense of being touched
research on left-handedness suggests that
genes and prenatal factors play a role in handedness
the reuptake of a neurotransmitter such as serotonin wou ld involve
the absorption of serotonin into an axon terminal
the reticular formation
is located in the brainstem
you are able to quickly pull your hand away from hot water before pain is felt because
movement of the hand is a reflex that involves intervention of the spinal cord only
epinephrine and norepinephrine
hormones that are released by the adrenal gland
the limbic system of a dog is...
the simplest brain mechanisms underlying emotion and memory
a slap on the back is more painful than a pat of the back because...
a slap on the back triggers faster and more intense and frequent neural impulses
math reasoning
is typically controlled by the left hemisphere
an EEG is...
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the surface of the brain
jack became more uninhibited, irritable, and profane after a gunshot wound because of...
an injury to his frontal lobe
a MRI...
is a magnetic resonant image looking at how the atoms in your brain reorganize while being magnetized
miguel will have trouble speaking fluently
after a car accident where he damaged his BROCA'S AREA
Wundt is
considered the "father of psychology"
socrates
started the interest in teh study of the mind by saying "know thyself:"
titchner created the concept of
structuralism
james created the concept of
functionalism
plato (socrates student) believed in
the ideal world
aristotle
disagreed with plato and thought we were both the mind and body becoming the first duelist
descartes said:
Congito Ergo Sum: "i think therefore i am"
locke thought
people were born a blank slate; he called this Tabla Rasa
evolutionary psychology
the most relevant to understanding the behavioral similiarities among women raised in different cultures
A pair of adopted children or identical twins reared in the same home are most likely to have similar
religious beliefs
twin studies suggest that Alzheimer's disease is influenced by
heredity
cultural diversity best illustrates our
natural selection
your mother and your father each provide one pair of how many chromosomes
23
the hormone testosterone stimulates growth of the
the male sex organs (PEEEEENNNNIIIIIISSSS)
casual hit-and-run sex is most frequent among males with
traditional masculine attitudes
identical twins share a more similar prenatal environment if they share the same
placenta
parental influence h as far more effect on a child's accent and educational success than does
peer influence
when his mother offered to play leapfrog with him, Jorge protested, "I'm not going to play a girl's game!" Jorge's reaction is best explained in terms of
gender schema theory
the gender that is more likely to initiate sexual activity, express permissive attitudes regarding sexual activity, and comply with direct requests for casual sex is
male
human genetic diversity consists of the variations in the sequence of our
nucleotides
social learning theorists emphasize taht _______ and ________ play a crucial role in the gender-typing process
observation and imitation
the mathematical mean is affected most by
a few extreme scores
an experiment where neither the scientist nor the subjects know who the control group is is called a
double blind experiment
overconfidence is best described as
intellectual conceit
the method that would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between the religious beliefs of americans and their attitudes towards abortion is
the survey
the process of replication is most likely to be facilitated by
operational definitions
the mode is least affected by
extreme scores
our tendency to notice and remember instances in which a premonition of an unlikely phone call is actually followed by the call most clearly contributes to an
illusory correlation
In order to determine the effects of a new drug on memory, one group of subjects is given a pill that contains the drug. A second group is given a sugar pill that does not contain the drug. This second group constitutes the
control group
Research particpants are randomly assigned to different conditions in an experiment in order
to reduce the likelihood of any preexisting differences between the groups of participants assigned to the different conditions
The type of research an investigator would use to manipulate one factor in order to observe its effect on some behavior or mental process is
experimentation
In order to compare the pace of life in different countries, Levine and Norenzayan measured the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request. This best illustrates the use of a research method known as
naturalistic observation
A specification of how a researcher measures a research variable is known as an
operational definition
Statistical reasoning can help us to generalize correctly from a _______ to a ___________
sample to a population
When a difference between two groups is _________________, this means that the difference is not likely to be due to chance variation
statistically significant
In a group of five individuals, two report annual incomes of $10,000, and the other three report incomes of $14,000, $15,000, and $31,000, respectively.The mode of this group's distribution of annual incomes is
$10,000
Using several bags of M&Ms to ascertain which number is the most plentiful is
random sampling
Most accidents happen within a mile of your home is a
positive correlation
Eye witness accounts are often not accurate because of
misremembering
Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzees in the jungle are using a research method known as
naturalistic observation
Psychological differences between the genders are far outweighed by
gender similarities
correlation does not cause
casualty
professor delano exemplifies a _______ when he predicts that because people are especially attracted to those who are good looking, handsome mean will be more successful than average looking mean in securing employment
hypothesis
the concept of control in an psychological research is important because...
without control over independent and dependent variables, researchers cannot describe,, predict, or explain behavior and results cannot be generalized from an sample to a population
hindsight bias can best be described as...
"i knew that" effect
illusory correlations often appear to be
positive correlations
according to erikson, a child entering adolesence can expect major developmental task demands to center around the need to____________
develope sense of one's self
a toddler who is learning to use the TOILET who sometimes feels bad when he/she messes up is at erikson's stage called ___________
autonomy versus shame and doubt
as children begin their elementary school years, they enter erikson's stage of _________
industry versus inferiority
a child who is just starting school, trying to learn good habits and to do well, is in erikson's stage of __________
industry versus inferiority
teachers, peers, and adults outside the home become more important in shpaing attitudes towards oneself in Erikson's stage of _________
industry versus inferiority
generativity refers to...
concern for welfare of others and society as a whole
according to Erikson, a major conflict in the first year of life is.....
trust vs mistrust
according to Erikson, failure to resolve the tasks of middle adulthood leads to....
a sense of stagnation of involving a concern for one's own needs and comforts only
initiative and independence are fostered by...
encouragement from parents when a child plans and carries out a task
if you are a young adult, you are interested in developing ___________
intimacy
the game of peek-a-boo works because infants are....
unaware that objects are permanent
attatchment is the strong bond a child forms with....
her/his primary caregiver
assimilation is incorporating:
objects, experiences, or information into existing schemas
conservation is the idea that:
properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in appearance
egocentrism is the inability of the preoperational child to:
take in another's point of view
children pass through two stages of morality:
the morality of constraint and the morality of cooperation
a successful alternative to drug treatment for hyperactivity is
behavior modification or behavior management
one recommended way for parents to handle occasional bed-wetting in children is to....
limit the amount of water they drink in the evening
a common mistake made by many concerned parents is like to be:
attempting to protect their children from all stress
Elkind calls a driver's license or a wedding ring a:
social marker
from the perspective of a lifespan psychologist, life stages are important because
they present a set of developmental tasks to be mastered
Lawrence Kohlberg is known for:
his research in the area of moral development
Kohlberg identified the three levels of moral development as:
the preconventional, conventional, and postconventional
at the conventional level of morality, a person:
conforms to the expectations of others or to socially accepted rules and values
at the postconventional level of morality, a person:
directs their behavior based on SELF-accepted moral principles
at the preconventional level of morality, a person:
determines moral choices by the direct consequences of actions
the first emotional reaction to impending death is usually:
denial
Elizabeth Kubler-Ross is known for her:
research in the area of DEATH and DYING
according to Kubler-Ross, the most common order of emotional reactions in preparing for death is:
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
with aging there is a decline of:
fluid intelligence but not crystallized intelligence
The fastest growing age group in American society is
65 and older
Most of the elderly show signs of senility and mental decay is a ____ about aging
myth
Discrimination or prejudice on the basis of ager is called
ageism
In passive euthaniasia death is
allowed but not caused
Vocabulary and stored knowledge are examples of crystallized
intelligence
_________ is the cognitive structure utilized to make sense of the world
Schema
____________________ is the part of intelligence which involves the use, as opposed to the acquisition, of information
Fluid Intelligence
_________________________ is a style consisting of very few rules and allowing children to make most decisions and control their own behavior
Permissive Parenting
__________________________ is a style focused on excessive rules, rigid belief systems, and expecation of unquestioned obedience
Authoritarian Parenting
__________________________ is a style focused on setting reasonable rules and expectations while encouraging comunication and independence
Authoritative Parenting
________ is the period of growth and hormonal changes that lead to sexual maturity
puberty
A researcher presetns two lights of varying brightness to a subject who is asked to respond "same" or "different" by comparing their intensities. The researcher is seeking the
just noticeable difference
The amount of change necessary is given stimulus to produce a just noticeable difference is a constant proportion of the original stimulus. This defines
Weber's Law
________________________ has been used by advertising companies and politicians in an attempt to increase sales or change opinions
Subliminal perception
________________ refers to a decrease in sensory response that accompanies an unchanging stimulus
Sensory adpation
___________ involves the presentation of stimuli too rapidly or too weakly to be consciously recognized
Subliminal perception
A child has learned to avoid a furry, black cat. However, she still plays with her grandmother's short-haired tabby. Her response demonstrates
discrimination
In a study of punishment, shock is administered to hamster through a wire grid on the bottom of the cage. To the researcher's surprise, the hamster learns to roll on its back when shocked so that its fur insulates it from the shock. The hamster's response demonstrates
negative reinforcement
The process through which a response is taught by rewarding successive approximations to the final desired response is
shaping
A "silent" dog whistle takes advantage of a characteristic of sennsory systems known as the
absolute threshold
The incoming flow of information from our sensory systems is referred to as
sensation
In bright light, the iris _________ and the pupil _______ to control the amount of light entering the eye
expands, constricts
The function of the lens is to
focus an image on the retina
Seeing out of the corner of your eye, often important in sports activities and driving, is called
peripheral vision
When you were in seventh grade, you had to get _______ because you could not see the board at school
glasses
The part of the eye where the optic nerve leaves the eye is called the
blind spot
Film is to camera as retina is to
eye
Black and white vision with greatest sensitivity under low levels of illumination describes the function of the
rods
Brain cells that analyze incoming sensory information into lines, angles, shading and movement are called
feature detectors
Visual problems such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism are the result of
physical abnormalities in the structure of the eye
Hearing aids are of no use to an individual with
nerve deafness
The pain-killing efects of acupuncture may be related to release of
endorphins
The organ of hearing, where sensitive cells respond to auditory stimuli, is known as the
cochlea
_____________ indicates that skin receptors are found in varying concentrations, reflecting the sensitivity of body areas
Skin mapping
The ______________ sense helps keep us from falling over
vestibular
Taste buds sensitive to sweet substances are found primarily on the ____ of the tongue
tip
The stimuli for audition are
sound pressure waves
the ________ theory explains that hearing high or low tones depends upon which area of the cochlea is most strongly stimulated
place
___________ sensation results from receptors in the muscles and joints responding to movement
Kinesthetic
__________ is another name for the sense of smell
Olfaction
The cheek is on eof the more sensitive parts of the body to
pain
___________ are mainly located on the top side of the tongue especially around the edges
Taste buds
The most widely accepted explanation for motion sickness is provided by
sensory conflict theory
In the ________ system, the first anatomical structure to respond to the sound wave is/are the eardrum.
auditory
The theory of color vision which states that the visual system analyzes information into "either-or" messages is the
opponent process theory
The frequency of a sound determines its
pitch
If you stand in the middle of a cobblestone street, the street will look coarse near your feet and finer if you look into the distance. This is called
texture gradient
when traveling in a car, near objects seem to move past you faster than distant objects. This is called
relative motion
If a genetically based attraction to beautiful people contributes to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates
behavior genetics
Evelyn wants to know how consistent her bowling scores have been during the past season. The ___________ would be most relevant to this specific concern
scatter plot
Piaget's stage of development are
Sensory, Motor, Preoperational, Concrete and Formal
Internal standards used to judge stimuli are referred to as
frames of reference
Illusions are distortions of
existing stimuli
The fact that objects that are near each other tend to be grouped together is known as
nearness
The underlying mechanism for perceptual expectancies is
top-down processing
Convergence is considered a monocular cue for
depth
The tendency to group together objects that are the same size, shape, color, or form is known as
similarity
Closure, nearness, similarity, and continuation are categories of
perceptual (gestalt) organization
A man 6 feet in height will look "tall" when surrounded by others of average height, and "short" among a group of professional basketball players.
This is an example of context.
The purported ability to perceive events at a distance or through physical barriers is termed
clairevoyance
The tendency to complete a figure is called
closure
Perception rarely provides an instant
replay of events
An ability to "read" another person's mind is termed
telepathy
Experiments with the visual cliff show that human infants perceive _____ by the age of six months
depth
Linear perspective is a monocular ______ cue
depth
An imaginary perception, such as seeing, hearing, or smelling something that does not exist in the external world is called a
hallucination
__________ is a process by which sensations are assembled into meaningful patterns that represent external events
Perception
The ability to see three-dimensional space and to accurately judge distances is called
depth perception
Many natural ESP occurrences are apparently a result of
coincidence
Human factors engineer psychologist would most likely be interested in things such as
displays, controls, and sensory and motor capabilities.
The most frequently used psychoactive drug in the United States is
caffeine
EEG records indicate that during sleep the brain changes its
pattern of activity
People dream more often in _______ sleep than in NREM sleep
REM
__________ is a sleep disturbance in which one awakens several times during the night and has difficulty returning to sleep
Insomnia
A suden, irresistible urge to sleep, which lasts a few minutes to half an hour during the daytime, is called
narcolepsy
When a person is shut off from the world such that he or she cannot even tell what time it is by light or dark, their sleep-waking cycle lengthens to an average of about
25 hours
In a newborn infant, one could expect total sleep time each day to approach
20 hours
Our ________________ are tied to a 24-hour day because they are tied to external time markers like light and dark
sleep rhythms
In Pavlov's experiments with dogs, salivation was the
I'M PRETTY SURE IT'S CONDITIONED RESPONSE BUT IT SAYS "CONDITIONED RESPONSE" HERE
In _____________, learning is evident when a stimulus which did not intially produce a response now elicits that response
classical conditioning
In __________________________, events critical for conditioning occur after the response
Thorndike's law of effect
_______ is particularly useful in controlling phantom limb pain
Hyponosis
__________ currently has its greatest value a tool for inducing relaxation
Hypnosis
The surest way to alter human consciousness is to administer a _____________ drug
psychoactive
Nicotine is classified as a
stimulant
Alcohol is classified as a
depressant
Many of the chemicals released by a burning cigarette are
carcinogens