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U.S History Chapter 20-24 Test Review

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Libraries
Industrialist Andrew Carnegie donated millions of dollars to help build _______________.
Joseph Pulitzer
The first newspaper editor to reach a truly massive audience without abandoning his basic integrity was ________________________.
Harvard
In 1869, __________ introduced the elective system and took the lead in reforming higher education in the Gilded Age.
Morrill
The __________________ land-grant university system was co-educational from the start.
Vassar
________________ College holds the distinction of being the first college for women.
Herbert Spencer
The most influential social Darwinist was the English thinker ___________________.
John Dewey
The educator __________________ insisted that education was the fundamental method of social progress.
Fredrick Jackson Turner
In his frontier thesis, _______________________ argued that the frontier gave Americans their unique character.
Mark Twain
The author of novels such as Huckleberry Finn, whose acute reportorial eyes and ears caught the spirit of his age, was ____________________.
Pragmatism
The effects of Darwinism in America were apparent in the philosophy of __________, which stated that all truths are constantly evolving and can be judged only by their concrete results.
Religion
Among the basic factors that affected whether people voted for Republicans or Democrats in the late nineteenth century were their ethnic backgrounds and ________.
Immigrants
Big-city political bosses and their machines emerged in the late nineteenth century because most ___________ knew little about democracy.
Americanizing
Big-city bosses inadvertently played a major part in ___________ the immigrants.
Boss Tweed
The most notorious of all city bosses was __________.
Ohio and New York
The group of "swing" states which gained unusual prominence in presidential elections because of the sectional nature of politics in the late nineteenth century included _________ and ______________.
Stalwarts
The Gilded Age Republicans, who were led by Roscoe Conkling and who believed in the blatant pursuit of the spoils of office, were called the ____________.
James A. Garfield
In 1881 President ________ was assassinated by Charles Guiteau, an unbalanced office-seeker.
Civil Service
The Pendleton Act of 1883 was a triumph for those Americans who sought _________ reform.
Cleveland
The New York Democrat who won the "dirty" presidential election of 1884 was ________.
James E. Blaine
One of the few politicians of his generation deeply interested in foreign affairs and an outstanding congressional leader who lost the election of 1884 because of the political scandal revealed by the "Mulligan letters" was _________________.
Mid 1880's
Throughout the _______________ farmers on the Plains experienced adequate rainfall and bountiful harvests.
Farmers Alliance
The earlier group from which the Populist movement emerged was the ____________.
James Weaver
In 1892 the Populist nominee for president was former Union General ____________.
Income Tax
The platform of the People's or Populist party called for a ________________.
Southern Black Farmers
The Populist strategy in the South was to lure _____________ away from the Democrats.
Silver
The election of 1892 seemed to set up a showdown in the election of 1896 on the issue of the ________________.
Cleveland
During 1894 and 1895, at the beginning of ____________ presidency, the economy floundered in one of the worst depressions in American history.
Jacob Coxey
The small-town businessman who led an "army" of the unemployed on a march to Washington, D.C. in 1894 was ________________.
J.P. Morgan
In early 1895 when the Treasury's gold reserves reached a desperately low point, a banking syndicate headed by ________________ underwrote a new bond issue and saved the government from bankruptcy.
William Jennings Bryan
The dramatic "Cross of Gold" speech won the 1896 Democratic presidential nomination for _____________________.
William Jennings Bryan
______________ discarded tradition in 1896 by traveling throughout the country giving hundreds of speeches.
Mark Hannah
In the election of 1896, McKinley's campaign manager who raised an enormous campaign fund from business was ____________________.
Regulate
One of the roots of progressivism was the late-nineteenth century effort to ____________ and control big business.
Magazine
A leading ________________ and crusading reformer of the early twentieth century was S.S. McClure.
MuckRakers
Progressive-era journalists who investigated corruption and fraud in American business and politics were called _________________.
Cities
The progressives attempted their first political reforms in the _____________.
Progressive Mayors
Samuel M. "Golden Rule" Jones, Tom L. Johnson, and Seth Low were all _____________.
City Manager
The ________ plan was an urban reform, pioneered in Dayton, Ohio, whereby city affairs are administered on a nonpartisan basis by a professional.
Wisconsin
The banner "progressive" state during the early years of the twentieth century was ________________.
Triangle Shirt Waist
Legislation protecting workers against on-the-job accidents was inspired by the disastrous ________________________ factory fire.
Suffrage
On the national level, the Progressive Era saw the completion of the struggle for women's ________________.
Moral Superiority
One of the suffragists' more successful justifications was the "purity" argument that women's ___________________ would clean up politics if they were given the vote.
17th Amendment
One example of the progressive drive for political democracy was the _________________, which required the popular election of senators.
Regulate
Theodore Roosevelt believed that the most effective means of dealing with big corporations was to _______________ rather than eliminate them.
Northern Securities Company
Roosevelt reacted to the creation of the __________________ by suing to have it dissolved under the Sherman Antitrust Act.
Square Deal
The first progressive president and the advocate of the "_______________" was Theodore Roosevelt.
Hepburn Act
The primary result of the 1906 _________________ was to make the Interstate Commerce Commission more powerful and active.
The Jungle
Upton Sinclair's novel _________________ exposed filthy conditions in Chicago slaughterhouses.
William Howard Taft
Theodore Roosevelt handpicked __________ to succeed him and carry out his policies.
Theodore Roosevelt
The politician who advocated a New Nationalism was _______________.
Republican Party
In 1912 the breakup of the __________________ produced an independent third party, the Progressives, led by Theodore Roosevelt.
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson advocated a program called the _________________.
Federal Reserve
When it was passed in 1913, the ________________ gave the country a central banking system for the first time since Andrew Jackson.
Congress
As part of the New Freedom, the _________ Act prohibited both price discrimination, which encouraged monopolies, and interlocking directorates created to control competition.
Progressives
When it came to non-whites, the _________ tended to be strongly prejudiced against them.
William. E. B. Du Bois
One of the most prominent black militants of the progressive era was ______________________.
NAACP
The organization formed in 1909 by a group of liberal whites and blacks to eradicate racial discrimination was the _________________________.
France
During the Civil War, __________ established a protectorate over Mexico and installed Archduke Maximillian as emperor.
Russia
In 1867, the United States purchased Alaska from ____________________
God's will
One reason for growing support for an overseas empire among Americans after the Civil War was the desire to carry out ___________________ to spread the virtues of the Anglo-Saxon race beyond North America.
Navy
Alfred Thayer Mahan argued in the 1890s that national security and prosperity rested on a powerful ___________________.
Coup
Queen Liliuokalani's "Hawaii for Hawaiians" movement led to an American led _____________ and the abolition of the monarchy.
Cleveland
President ____________________ reaction to the possibility of annexing Hawaii was to withdraw the treaty annexing Hawaii from the Senate, but he was unwilling to oust the American revolutionaries by force.
Monroe Doctrine
Americans had stronger reasons for extending their influence in Latin America rather than in the Pacific because they were accustomed to protecting American interests in Latin America under the _____________________.
Venezuela
In the 1890s a nasty dispute erupted between the United States and Great Britain over the boundary between _____________________ and British Guiana.
Cuba
The major issue in the Spanish-American War was the independence of _________________.
New York Journal and New York World
Before the Spanish-American War, both Hearst's________________ and Pulitzer's___________________________ tried to increase circulation by publishing tales of Spanish atrocities.
Maine
In February 1898, the American battleship the __________ mysteriously exploded in Havana harbor.
Amelio Hemegualdo
The leader of the Filipino nationalist forces during the 1890s was ______________________.
Dewey
In the first battle of the Spanish-American War, Commodore ___________________ devastated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay.
Rough Riders
The American politician who formed a volunteer unit, the "____________________," and participated in storming San Juan Hill was Theodore Roosevelt.
Philippines
After the Spanish-American War, heated debates raged over the imperialism of annexing the ___________________________.
Asian Markets
Expansionists who wished to annex the Philippines seemed most interested in establishing the Philippines as the gateway to ______________________.
Gorilla War Revolt
When America refused to withdraw its armed forces, the Filipinos launched a _________________________ against the American forces.
Guantanamo Bay Navy Base
Under the Platt Amendment, Cuba promised to grant ____________________ to America and to avoid treaties with any foreign power, which might compromise its independence.
Roosevelt Corollary
Early in the twentieth century, the United States announced that it must "exercise ...an international police power" in the Western Hemisphere in the ________________________ to the Monroe Doctrine.
China Markets
The "Open Door" policy attempted to preserve the chances for American business to enter the markets of ______________________.
Roosevelt
When Panama revolted against Colombia, _______________________ ordered the cruiser Nashville to Panama to prevent Colombia from subduing the revolution.
World War 1
The Panama Canal opened for ship traffic on the eve of __________________.
Taft
President __________ called his policy of influencing other countries without actually controlling them "dollar diplomacy."
Huerta
Wilson became deeply involved in Mexican politics in response to the reactionary general __________, who led the 1913 coup and had his former chief murdered.
Mexico
In 1916, United States troops, commanded by General John J. Pershing, invaded __________ to capture "Pancho" Villa.
Assassination
The Great War was precipitated by the ___________________ of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, by a Serbian nationalist.
Allied
At the outbreak of the Great War in 1914, the ______________ Powers included Great Britain, France, and Russia.
Freedom of The Seas
American attitudes towards the two sides in the Great War were most influenced by conflicts over ______________________.
1916
In the presidential election of _______________, the leading issue was American policy toward the warring powers.
Zimmerman
In February 1917, the U.S. learned of the __________ Telegram in which Germany offered a military alliance to Mexico if the U.S. entered the war on the Allied side.
War Industries Board
During the Great War, the government agency which had almost dictatorial powers to allocate scarce materials and fix prices was the _______________________.
Harry Truman
This future American political leader commanded an artillery battalion in France during the Great War was ________________________.
Bonds
During the Great War, the federal government asked citizens to buy ______________________.
Committee of Public Information
The head of the ____________________________________, which portrayed Germany as determined to dominate the world, was George Creel.
Sedition
During the Great War, mere criticism of the government became cause for arrest and imprisonment under the __________ Act.
Southern Blacks
The Great War triggered a major movement of ____________________ to northern cities.
Black African Americans
Most ___________________________ reacted to the Great War with optimism that the walls of prejudice were beginning to crumble.
Argonne Forrest
In their greatest engagement of the war, in September 1918, despite the heavy loss of 120,000 casualties, American troops won the Battle of __________________________.
14 Points
President Wilson's plan for a lasting peace after the Great War was known as the __________________________.
Big 4
Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George, and Vittorio Orlando were members of the so-called __________________ at the Paris Peace Conference.
Versailles
The peace settlement reached at the Paris conference of 1919 was called the __________ Treaty.
League of Nations
Wilson believed that any weaknesses in the Versailles Treaty could be overcome by the ________________________.
Republicans
The leader of the __________________ opposition in the Senate to Wilson's League of Nations was Henry Cabot Lodge.
Versailles Treaty
When it appeared as if the necessary two-thirds of the Senators would not approve the ______________________________, without reservations, Wilson attempted to rally support for the Treaty by a nationwide speaking tour.
Senate
The basic reason why the ______________________ failed to ratify the Versailles Treaty was the refusal of both Woodrow Wilson and Henry Cabot Lodge to compromise.
A. Mitchell Palmer
In the 1919-1920 "Red Scare," radicals were ruthlessly suppressed by Attorney General _____________________________________________.