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Antebellum period

the period before the civil war when reformers dedicated themselves to establishing free public schools, improving the treatment of the mentally ill, controlling/abolishing the consumption of alcohol, giving rights to women, and abolishing slavery.

Second Great Awakening

a reaction to the Enlightenment. Started religious revivals to reassure God in the lives of people

Charles G. Finney

urged people to abandon sin and lead good lives in dramatic sermons at religious revivals

Peter Cartwright

The most famous Methodist travelling frontier preacher. He traveled around the country preaching to large groups. Established a wide variety of Baptists and Methodists.

William Miller

Founder of the Millennialism/Seventh-Day Adventists religion; made people believe that Jesus would come back on 10/21/1844.

Joseph Smith

founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints

Church of the Latter Day Saints/ Mormons

believed that the Native Americans had something to do with the lost tribes of Israel. Their practice of polygamy was highly frowned upon.

Bringham Young

the charismatic successor to Joseph Smith, who led the Mormon people from Illinois to a new land near the Great Salt Lake in Utah, which was then part of Mexico.

Ralph Waldo Emerson

American transcendentalist who was against slavery and stressed self-reliance, optimism, self-improvement, self-confidence, and freedom. He was a prime example of a transcendentalist and helped further the movement.

Henry David Thoreau

American transcendentalist who was against a government that supported slavery. He wrote down his beliefs in Walden. He started the movement of civil-disobedience when he refused to pay the toll-tax to support him Mexican War.

Brook Farm

Two hundred acre community in Massachusetts founded in 1841 by a group of twenty transcendentalists, who prospered until the community collapsed in debt after a large building went down in a fire.

George Ripley

created the idea of Brook Farm


held women and men separate to keep sexual activity from happening. Did not survive because there were no successors.

Amana settlements

founded in Iowa and did the same thing that the shakers did, but they survived because they could engage in sexual activity.

Robert Owen

tried to create New Harmony that would fix the problems of inequity and alienation caused by the Industrial Revolution

New Harmony

This was a society that focusted on Utopian Socialism (Communism). It was started by Robert Owens but failed because everybody did not share a fair load of the work.

John Humphrey Noyes

created the Oneida community of "free-love"

Oneida Community

idea that everyone was married to each other, justified free-love. Society survived because of their creation of good silverware

Fourier Phalanxes

idea of Communism that everyone should share work and living arrangements; did not survive because of sheer individuality

George Caleb Bingham

painted pics of people in common settings


style of architecture throughout the US

American Temperance Society

An organization group in which reformers are trying to help the ever present drink problem.


first state to prohibit the sale of alcohol

Dorothea Dix

spent her life helping to get the mentally ill better treatment and improved conditions

Thomas Gallaudet

founded a school for the deaf

Samuel Gridley Howe

founded a school for the blind

Horace Mann

improved schools so children would be prepared for the industrial society

William Holmes McGuffey

created elementary textbooks that became the standard of learning for all

Cult of Domesticity

idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands

Seneca Falls Convention

Kicked off the equal-rights-for-women campaign led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony (1848)

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