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Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere-where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid-and return to Earth's surface.
Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, snow, or fog.
Active solar energy systems
Solar energy system that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices like photovoltaic cells or falt plate collectors.
Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particules, at a greater level that occurs in average air.
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution.
A gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire extinguishers.
The sustainable use and management of a natural resource through consuming at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced.
Energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago.
Anticipated increase in Earth's temperature, caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface.
A gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation, found in the stratosphere, a zone between 15 and 50 kilometers (9 to 30 miles) above Earth's surface.
Passive solar energy systems
Solar energy that collects energy without the use of mechanical devices.
An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution especially from motor vehicles emissions.
Solar energy cells, usually made from silicon, that collect solar rays to generate electricity.
Maintenance of a resource in its present condition with as little human impact as possible.
Materials from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation; contact with such particles may be harmful or lethal to people; therefore, the Materials must be safely stored for thousands of years.
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin.
The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development.
What fossil fuel characteristics cause concern?
Supply is finite and distributed unevenly around the world.
How can potential be converted to proven reserves?
Undiscovered fields, enhanced recovery from already discovered fields, and unconventional sources (not economically feasible).
What are important inequalities in the global distribution of fossil fuels?
Some regions have abundant reserves, while others don't; and the heaviest consumers are in different regions than the reserves.
What did the Netherlands do in response to the boycott of petroleum?
Banned all but emergency motor vehicle travel on Sundays.
What human activities generate the most air pollution?
Motor vehicles, industry, and power plants (burning of fossil fuels).
What are urban air pollutants main components?
Carbon monoxide (incomplete burning), hydrocarbons (incomplete comustion), and particulates (dust and smoke particles).
What are the main sources of water pollution?
Water-using industries, municipal sewage, and agriculture.
What is the difference between point-source and nonpoint-source pollution?
Point-source enters a stream at a specific location (industries) and nonpoint-source comes from a large diffuse area (farmers).
How can pollution threaten aquatic life?
Non-normal oxygen levels and/or raising the temperature too much.
What do LDCs regard water pollution as?
A small price to pay for participating in the global economy.
Why is nuclear power a nonrenewable resource?
Because you need uranium for nuclear power and uranium is nonrenewable.
What are biomass problems?
Forest fertility may be reduced, inefficient (energy used is the same amount produced), and already serves as other essential purposes.
What are the main series of recycling?
Materials are collected and sorted, and then are manufactured into new products.
What are the primary methods of collecting recyclables?
Curbside, drop-off centers, buyback centers, and deposit programs.
What are the main manufacturing sectors for recycling?
Paper, steel, plastic, and iron and steel mills.
What are other strategies to reduce pollution?
Reduce discharge and making the environment more acceptable to discharge.
What are all linked to sustainability?
Environmental protection, economic growth, and social equity.
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