A.P Human Geography Chp. # 14
Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, enter the atmosphere-where they combine with oxygen and water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid-and return to Earth's surface.
Conversion of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, snow, or fog.
Active solar energy systems
Solar energy system that collects energy through the use of mechanical devices like photovoltaic cells or falt plate collectors.
Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particules, at a greater level that occurs in average air.
Power supplied by people or animals.
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)
Amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution.
The number of different species within a specific habitat.
Fuel that derives from plant material and animal waste.
A nuclear power plant that creates its own fuel from plutonium.
A gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, and in plastic foams and fire extinguishers.
The sustainable use and management of a natural resource through consuming at a less rapid rate than it can be replaced.
Metals, including iron ore, that are utilized in the production of iron and steel.
The splitting of an atomic nucleus to release energy.
Energy source formed from the residue of plants and animals buried millions of years ago.
Creation of energy by joining the nuclei of two hydrogen atoms to form helium.
Energy from steam or hot water produced from hot or molten underground rocks.
Anticipated increase in Earth's temperature, caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface.
Power generated from moving water.
Power supplied by machines.
Metals utilized to make products other than iron and steel.
A source of energy that is a finite supply capable of being exhausted.
A gas that absorbs ultraviolet solar radiation, found in the stratosphere, a zone between 15 and 50 kilometers (9 to 30 miles) above Earth's surface.
Passive solar energy systems
Solar energy that collects energy without the use of mechanical devices.
An atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions and pollution especially from motor vehicles emissions.
Solar energy cells, usually made from silicon, that collect solar rays to generate electricity.
Addition of more waste than a resource can accommodate.
The amount of energy in deposits not yet identified but thought to exist.
Maintenance of a resource in its present condition with as little human impact as possible.
The amount of a resource available in discovered deposits
Materials from a nuclear reaction that emit radiation; contact with such particles may be harmful or lethal to people; therefore, the Materials must be safely stored for thousands of years.
The separation, collection, processing, marketing, and reuse of unwanted material.
A resource that has a theoretically unlimited supply and is not depleted when used by humans.
A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
A place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trash, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin.
The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development.
What are the natural resources valueable to humans?
Minerals and energy resources.
Where is biomass fuel important?
What resources produce 5/6 of the world's energy?
Coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
What is energy used for?
Businesses, homes, and transportation.
What fossil fuel characteristics cause concern?
Supply is finite and distributed unevenly around the world.
How can potential be converted to proven reserves?
Undiscovered fields, enhanced recovery from already discovered fields, and unconventional sources (not economically feasible).
What are important inequalities in the global distribution of fossil fuels?
Some regions have abundant reserves, while others don't; and the heaviest consumers are in different regions than the reserves.
Distribution of fossil fuels has to do with what?
How fossil fuels form.
In 2015, what country will take over the U.S. in energy consumption?
Who depends on foreign petroleum?
European countries and Japan.
What did LDCs with petroleum reserves create?
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
What did the Arab OPEC do in 1973-74?
They refused to sell petroleum to nations supporting Israel.
What did the Netherlands do in response to the boycott of petroleum?
Banned all but emergency motor vehicle travel on Sundays.
Who was most effected by the petroleum boycott?
What are nonmetallic minerals used for?
90% is used for building stones.
What is the world's most widely used ferrous metal?
What is the most abundant nonferrous metal?
What are some precious metals?
Gold, silver, and platinum.
What human activities generate the most air pollution?
Motor vehicles, industry, and power plants (burning of fossil fuels).
How much has the temperature of Earth's atmosphere risen?
2 degrees Fahrenheit in 100 years.
What has happened to Poland's life expectancy?
A man's life expectancy has decreased by 10 years.
What are the main types of pollution?
Air, water, and land.
What are urban air pollutants main components?
Carbon monoxide (incomplete burning), hydrocarbons (incomplete comustion), and particulates (dust and smoke particles).
What are the worst U.S areas for particulates?
Los Angeles and Pittsburgh.
Where might be the world's worst air pollution?
What are the main sources of water pollution?
Water-using industries, municipal sewage, and agriculture.
What is the difference between point-source and nonpoint-source pollution?
Point-source enters a stream at a specific location (industries) and nonpoint-source comes from a large diffuse area (farmers).
How can pollution threaten aquatic life?
Non-normal oxygen levels and/or raising the temperature too much.
What river in England became dangerously polluted?
What do LDCs regard water pollution as?
A small price to pay for participating in the global economy.
We disperse air and water pollution, but do what to land pollution?
Where do some European and North American countries try to transport their waste to?
Where are the countries that depend on nuclear power?
How many times has nuclear power been used in warfare?
2 times (both by the U.S).
Why is nuclear power a nonrenewable resource?
Because you need uranium for nuclear power and uranium is nonrenewable.
What are the leading renewable energy sources?
Biomass and hydroelectric.
What are biomass problems?
Forest fertility may be reduced, inefficient (energy used is the same amount produced), and already serves as other essential purposes.
What is the second most popular source of electricity?
Hydroelectricity (after coal).
Who is the leading producer of hydroelectricity?
China (3 Gorges dam).
What is the main source of ethanol in the U.S?
What are the main series of recycling?
Materials are collected and sorted, and then are manufactured into new products.
What are the primary methods of collecting recyclables?
Curbside, drop-off centers, buyback centers, and deposit programs.
What are the main manufacturing sectors for recycling?
Paper, steel, plastic, and iron and steel mills.
What are other strategies to reduce pollution?
Reduce discharge and making the environment more acceptable to discharge.
What are all linked to sustainability?
Environmental protection, economic growth, and social equity.
What country has rapidly been contributing to pollution?
What is happening to biodiversity that effects biologists?
Species are becoming extinct faster than they are discovered.