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William the Conqueror

duke of Normandy; invaded England with a Norman army, rival was Harold Godwinson

Henry II

English king, married Eleanor of Aquitaine from France, was a vassal to the French king

Hugh Capet

an undistinguished duke from the middle of France, succeed Louis the Sluggard; ruled only a small territory, but at its heart stood Paris; began the Captian dynasty of French kings that rule France from 987 to 1328

Philip II (Philip Augustus)

one of the most powerful Capetians; ruled from 1180 to 1223; set out to weaken the power of the English kings in France; crafty, unprincipled, and willing to do whatever was necessary to achieve his goals; had little success against Henry II

Alfred the Great

Anglo-Saxon king from 871-899, managed to turn back the Viking invaders; gradually he and his successors united the kingdom under one rule, calling it England, "land of the Angles"


1016, Danish king, conquered England, molding Anglo-Saxons and Vikings into one people

King Edward the Confessor

a descendent of Alfred the Great, took the throne in 1042

Harold Gowinson

William the Conqueror's rival; the Anglo-Saxon who claimed the throne; equally ambitious; killed by an arrow and pierced his eye (participated in Battle of Hastings)

Eleanor of Aquitaine

wife of Henry II

Richard the Lion-Hearted

Henry II's first son; hero of the Third Crusade; when he died, his younger brother took the throne

John Softsword

younger brother of Richard the Lion-Hearted; ruled from 1199-1216; failed as a military leader, earning his nickname; lost Normandy and all his lands in northern France to the French under Philip Augustus; cruel to subjects and tried to squeeze money out of them; alienated the Church and threatened to take away town charters guaranteeing self-government; raised taxes; nobles revolted; forced to agree to the Magna Carta

Edward I

English king; needed to raistaxes for a war against the French, the Welsh, and the Scots; summoned two burgesses from every borough and two knights from every country to serve as a parliament

Louis the Sluggard

987, last member of the Carolingian family, died; Hugh Capet succeeded him

Louis IX

grandson to Philip II; made France's central government become stronger during his reign; ruled from 1226 to 1270; pious and saintly; known as the ideal king; made a saint by the Catholic Church; created French appeals court, which could overturn the decisions of local courts

Philip IV

ruled France from 1285 to 1314; involved in a quarrel with the pope; disputed the right of the pope to control Church affairs in his kingdom

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