Philosophy Lesson 3: Determining Truth

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Justified, true belief
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Pragmatic theoryThis view uses tests and experiments to verify the truthIdeas, claims, argumentsMany _________ or __________ are presented in the form of ___________.OpinionsSubjective statements which are influenced by biasBiasesCannot be avoided in any discussion or debateConcept of truthThe concept which philosphers often grappleTruthIt lies at the heart of any inquiryKnowledgeMust be truthful to gain validity and acceptanceConcept of truthIt remains a controversial and much-discussed topic among philosophersAgreePhilosophers ______ that there is no absolute measure of truthAd hominemAttacking the person making the argument instead of the argument itselfAd hominem"Of course, he believes that the government is flawed. He is a rebel and a Communist!"Appeal to forceUsing the threat of force or an undesirable event to advance an argumentAppeal to force"If this peace agreement will not be signed by the government, then we will have no recourse but to go to war."Appeal to emotionUsing emotions such as pity or sympathyAppeal to emotion"All these charges are baseless; this is just plain harassment - can't you see how this is affecting my family?"Appeal to the popularThe idea is presented as acceptable because a lot of people accept itAppeal to the popular"Every boy your age already has a girlfriend, you should go and find one!"Appeal to traditionThe idea is acceptable because it has been true for a long timeAppeal to tradition"Marriage should be between a man and a woman. It has been so for a long time in this country; it should remain so today and in the future."Begging the questionAssuming the thing or idea to be proven is true; also known as "circular argument"Begging the question"I have a right to free speech, therefore, you cannot stop me from talking."Cause-and-effectAssuming a "cause-and-effect" relationship between unrelated eventsCause-and-effect"Ever since you bought that sweater, everything has been going wrong in your life. You should get rid of it."Fallacy of compositionAssuming that what is true for a part is true for the wholeFallacy of composition"These cases of robberies in this district have convinced me that the city has become a den of thieves and criminals."Fallacy of divisionAssuming that what is true for the whole is true for its partsFallacy of division"You come from a family of doctors and intellectuals! Surely you can do better in this course!"FactsAre generally established truths, easily verified, and do not easily change from one situation to anotherPragmatic TheoryHolds the view that something is true if we can put it into practice is useful in real lifeVerificationismConsiders that ideas must be verified using the senses experienceConsensus theoryA theory which views that something is true if almost everyone agrees that it is trueConstructivist theoryThis perspective holds that it is possible for knowledge and truth to change, given what is true may be influenced by historical developments and social strugglesCoherence theoryBased on this perspective, there is possibility that there will be varied "truths" from different perspectivesRelativismA philosophical concept which contends that there are no absolute truthsCorrespondence theoryThis theory assumes a direct relationship between an idea and reality and that a statement can be taken as "fact"Coherence and ConsistencyAre also important in the context of law and politicsConsensus theoryAlso used to determine the truth of scientific claims, where experts must agree on a certain phenomenon before it can be established as truePragmatic theoryExample of this theory is the scientific method, where experiments are designed to test hypotheses or confirm conclusionsPragmatic theoryIt was used in the study of yellow fever during the late 19th centuryCorrespondence theory, Coherence theory, Constructivist theory, Consensus theory, Pragmatic theoryThese theories on knowledge provides us varied perspectives in analyzing the truthBiasesThe personal views of the person presenting his/her opinionCorrespondence bias or Attribution effectTendency to judge a person's personality by his or her actions, without regard for external factors or influencesConfirmation biasTendency to look for and readily accept information which fits with one's own beliefs and to reject ideas or views that go against itFramingFocusing on a certain aspect of a problem while ignoring other aspectsCorrespondence bias or Attribution effect"These soldiers who fought in the war are all bloodthirsty murderers!"Confirmation bias"How can I accept his view that there is no God? I am a Christian!"Framing"Preliminary evidences have still not pointed out the actual cause of plane crash, but investigators are currently focusing on the possibility of pilot error."HindsightThe tendency to see past events as predictable, or to ascribe a pattern to historical eventsHindsight"Magellan's assault in Mactan Island was a foolhardy venture, made by an overconfident, careless man who underestimated the valor of the native Filipinos."Conflict of interestA person or group is connected to or has vested interest in the issue being discussedConflict of interest"As the daughter of the accused, I believe I have the right to express my opinion on the issue of his alleged corrupt practices."Cultural biasAnalyzing an event or issue based on one's cultural backgroundCultural bias"I do not agree with this Western practice of placing aged parents in retirement homes. We Filipinos take care of our family members."TrueTrue or False What is true may possibly change due to social and historical developmentsJustified, true beliefThis concept stated that something is true because you believe it to be true, and that there is justification for such belief