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whiskey rebellion

In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.

Alexander Hamilton

1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.


a member of a political group advocating or fighting for national independence, a strong national government, etc.

Annapolis Convention

A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention

confederation congress

national legislative body formed by the Articles of Confederation

Thomas Jefferson

He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.

John Adams

America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."

George Washington

Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.

James Madison

The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.

Virginia Plan

Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population

bicameral legislature

a lawmaking body made up of two chambers or parts

New Jersey Plan

Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.

Great Compromise

Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house

Three-fifths rule

The compromise that stated that slaves would count as 3/5 of a person in determining the representation of each state in the House.

Council of Revision


constitutional monarchy

A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.

electoral college

the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president

Committee of Style

Publishes draft of constitution. No one knows that there is a new document yet. Gouverneur Morris- Leader of committee of style. George Mason opposed document.


Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.

Mercy Otis Warren

A 19th century American historian who wrote a 3-volume history of the American Revolution.

The Federalist

Essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788.


opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independant states


formal approval, final consent to the effectiveness of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty

Bill of Rights

a statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)

New York City

the largest city in New York State and in the United States


an executive officer ranking immediately below a president

veto power

presidential power to stop a bill from becoming a law by rejecting it

Secretary of State

the position of the head of the State Department

Treasury Secretary

the position of the head of the Treasury Department

Secretary of War

head of a former executive department

Attorney General

the position of the head of the Justice Department and the chief law enforcement officer of the United States


persons appointed by a head of state to head executive departments of government and act as official advisers

Judiciary Act of 1789

In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.

John Jay

United States diplomat and jurist who negotiated peace treaties with Britain and served as the first chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1745-1829)

Chisholm v. Georgia

The heirs of Alexander Chisholm (a citizen of South Carolina) sued the state of Georgia. The Supreme Court upheld the right of citizens of one state to sue another state, and decided against Georgia.

Ware v. Hylton

court case that declared that the federal government can strike down state laws

Hylton v. U.S.

First case that Supreme Court ruled oncConstitutionality, ruled in favor of Congress.

Eleventh Amendment

1795, response to Chisholm v. Georgia, states may not be sued in federal court by citizens of another state or country w/out consent of states being sued

Tariff of 1789

Tax on imports and all foreign shipping. It was meant to raise money and stimulate the merchant marine rather than to protect any industry.

excise tax

a tax that is measured by the amount of business done (not on property or income from real estate)

national capitol

The core place of a country where most politics occur.

State debts

placing the permanent national capital of the US was a compromise connected wth the issue of the

Bank of the United States

Proposed by Alexander Hamilton as the basis of his economic plan. He proposed a powerful private institution, in which the government was the major stockholder. This would be a way to collect and amass the various taxes collected. It would also provide a strong and stable national currency. Jefferson vehemently opposed the bank; he thought it was un-constitutional. nevertheless, it was created. This issue brought about the issue of implied powers. It also helped start political parties, this being one of the major issues of the day.

strict constructionist

a person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take

loose constructionist

A person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take actions that the constitution does not specifically forbid it from taking

French Revolution

the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.

Franco-American Alliance

Agreement by France to fund American military aids and loans to American colonies. France wanted to piss of Britain basically.

Edmond Genet

french diplomat who tried to get american support against the british

Neutrality of 1793

document which proclaimed official neutrality in the war between England and France

Indian Intercourse Act

These were several acts passed by the United States Congress regulating commerce between American Indians and non-Indians and restricting travel by non-Indians onto Indian land. It regulated relations between Indians living on Indian land and non-Indians, this final act identified an area known as Indian country.


Trading stations with resident merchants established by the Portuguese and other Europeans

Chief Little Turtle

Miami tribe, fight between native americans and joshuah harmer, attacked white settlers

General Josiah Harmar

Sent to clear the natives and British out of Northwest Territory

General Author St. Clair

in northwest territory washington sent an army under British to the northwest territory but they were defeated by Indians.

Canada Act

(1982) This document became Canada's new patriated constitution. Included most provisions of the BNA Act, a Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and an amending formula. It was agreed by the federal government and nine of the ten provinces. Quebec refused to agree.

Fort Miami

British fort in the Maumee Valley, west of Lake Erie, well within American territory

General Anthony Wayne

leader of army that defeated the miamis that were aided by British on canadian border in the battle of fallen timbers

Battle of Fallen Timbers

The U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River

Treaty of Greenville

This treaty between the Americans and the Native Americans. In exchange for some goods, the Indians gave the United States territory in Ohio. Anthony Wayne was the American representative.

Jay's Treaty

Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley

Democratic Societies

Clubs which met for discussion, designed to keep alive the philosophies of the American Revolution. They were sometimes called Jacobean clubs because they also supported the French Revolution.

executive privilege

The power to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security.

Pinkney's Treaty

gave Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River and the right to trade at New Orleans

Washington's Farewell Address

Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.

Democratic-Republican Party

political party led by Thomas Jefferson; it feared centralized political power, supported states' rights, opposed Hamilton's financial plan, and supported ties with France. It was heavily influenced by a agrarian interests in the southern states.

Friends of Order


Election of 1796

The person with the most electoral votes, John Adams, became President and the person with the second most electoral votes, Thomas Jefferson, became Vice President. A problem from this situation was that Adams and Jefferson belonged to different political parties, so political tensions were strong in the Executive Branch. In modern elections, presidential candidates choose their vice presidential candidates to run with them, so the situation in 1796 could not occur.

XYZ Affair

An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.


Undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1800. The French began to seize American ships trading with their British enemies and refused to receive a new United States minister when he arrived in Paris in December 1796.

Naturalization Act

Act that increased the time to become a US citizen from 5 to 14 years

The Alien Act

Four laws passed by the U.S. Congress in 1798, in anticipation of war with France. The acts, precipitated by the XYZ Affair, restricted aliens and curtailed press criticism of the government. Aimed at French and Irish immigrants (who were mostly pro-France), they increased the waiting period for naturalization and authorized expulsion of aliens considered dangerous.

The Alien Enemies act

This provided for the deportation or imprisonment of any individuals in a time of declared war.

The Sedition Act

It stated that any opposition to the legal measures of the government or slander of the government could be punished by both a heavy fine and imprisonment.

Albert Gallatin

He was Jefferson's secretary. Jefferson and Gallatin believed that to pay the interest on debt, there would have to be taxes. Taxes would suck money from industrious farmers and put it in the hands of wealthy creditors.

Matthew Lyon

was the first person to be put to trial for violating the acts on charges of criticizing Federalist president John Adams and disagreeing with Adams' decision to go to war against France. Lyon was sentenced to four months in jail and ordered to pay a $1,000 fine and court costs. While in jail, Lyon won election to the Sixth Congress. In the election of 1800 Matthew Lyon cast the deciding vote for Jefferson after the election went to the House of Representatives because of an electoral tie.

Roger Griswold

Lyon's nemesis; fed. congressmen from CT; 1st documented altercation between congressmen

Virginia and Kentucky Resolve


Convention of 1800

Agreement which freed America from its alliance with France, forgave French $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams' losing a second term as president

Fries's Rebellion

In 1788 John Adams called out troops to down the German settlers in Pa

Arron Burr

After Burr is accused of joining the Essex Junto by Hamilton, he and Hamilton have a duel in which Hamilton died. When Jefferson discovers his plans with the Essex Junto, he has Burr arrested for treason, however John Marshal says that In order for an action to be considered treasoness, it must be a direct attack on the United States and be witnessed by two individuals

Twelfth Amendment

Beginning in 1804, electors would vote separately for President and Vice President

Benjamin West

An Anglo-American self-taught painter of historical scenes around and after the time of the American Revolution, West also painted the royal family of King George III and co-founded the Royal Academy of Arts

John Singleton Copley

American painter who did portraits of Paul Revere and John Hancock before fleeing to England to avoid the American Revolution (1738-1815)

Gilbert Stuart

United States painter best known for his portraits of George Washington (1755-1828)

Charles Wilson Peale

He was one of the outstanding painters of the early American republic, and he painted more than a thousand portraits, mostly of American Revolution leaders. He founded the nation's first museum and first art school. His 1772 portrait of George Washington is recognized as the first authentic likeness of Washington. He continued to add paintings of national leaders like John Adams (1791-1794), Alexander Hamilton (1791), and James Madison (1792). His likenesses were realistic, accurate in detail, and sensitive to the sitter's personality.

John Trumbull

American satirical poet (1750-1831)

Pierre Charles L'Enfant

a French artist and archetect who fought for the US in the Revolution and developed the capitol city plan

Asher Benjamin

American architecht who's designs greatly influenced towns in New England, the Midwest, and the South.

Philip Freneau

Republican editor of National Gazette, associated with Jefferson and quickly became the leader of Republic press.

Parson Weems

American printer and author who wrote stories about George Washington, such as the cherry tree story, in his book, "The Life of Washington"

Joel Barlow

A poet and Yale graduate, he wrote a mock epic called "the Hasty Pudding."

Thomas Paine

American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist's fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)

Michel-Guillaume Jean de Crevecoeur

a Frenchman who settled in New York territory in 1759; he wrote a book called Letters of an American Farmer that established a new standard for writing about America:

John Filson


Noah Webster

American writer who wrote textbooks to help the advancement of education. He also wrote a dictionary which helped standardize the American language.

Susann Haswell


William Hill Brown

Author of the first american novel

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