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IB Biology - 7.2 Transcription
Essential vocabulary for the IBO DP Biology course
Terms in this set (24)
5' to 3' direction
the only direction that DNA polymerase can synthesize DNA; it does so by adding nucleotides to the 3' end of a DNA strand.
One of the methods used to regulate the expression of genes: a methyl (CH3) group is added to cytosine bases in DNA, blocking access to the DNA by transcription proteins (transcription factors, RNA polymerase)
sequence of DNA that codes information for protein synthesis that is transcribed to messenger RNA.
conversion of the information from the gene into mRNA via transcription and then to protein via translation resulting in the phenotypic manifestation of the gene.
total genetic contents of an organism.
segment of a gene situated between exons that is removed before the translation of messenger RNA and does not function in coding for protein synthesis.
components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences. Some non-coding DNA is transcribed into functional non-coding RNA (eg tRNA) molecules while others are not transcribed.
structural unit of a eukaryotic chromosome, consisting of a length of DNA coiled around a core of histones.
site in a DNA molecule at which RNA polymerase and transcription factors bind to initiate transcription of mRNA. It is generally immediately upstream of the gene
Splicing of mRNA
removal of introns from a primary transcript and the subsequent joining of exons in the production of a mature RNA molecule.
sequence of nucleotides that signals the end of transcription or translation and the completion of the synthesis of a nucleic acid or protein molecule.
process by which messenger RNA is synthesized from a DNA template resulting in the transfer of genetic information from the DNA molecule to the messenger RNA.
When a single gene codes for multiple proteins because particular exons may or may not be included in the mature mRNA
Poly A tail
Post transcriptional modification of mRNA where 100 -200 adenine nucleotides are added to the 3' end of mRNA
Post transcriptional modification of mRNA where a modified guanine (G) nucleotide is added onto the 5' end
Modification to a histone that increases transcription by the additional of acetyl groups to the histone tails; this opens up the chromatin structure
Modification to a histone that either reduces or increases transciption by the additional of methyl groups to the histone tails
The study of heritable changes in gene activity that are NOT caused by changes to DNA base sequences eg histone modification and DNA methylation
A non-coding part of DNA generally associated with a particular gene. These may be upstream, downstream, 1000's of nucleotides away or even in an intron. These DECREASE trancription when a repressor protein binds.
Proteins which bind to enhancers to increase transcription
Proteins which bind to silencers to decrease transcription
Special nucleotide sequences typically consisting of multiple repetitions of one shore nucleotide sequence. They occur near the ends of the DNA molecules and 'seal' the ends to stop the erosion of the genes that would occur with each repeated round of replication
Genes of tRNA
Parts of the DNA template that code for lengths of tRNA
Lengths of non-coding DNA used in DNA profiling. Short sequences of bases that are repeated very many times. They often occur together in major clusters
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