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aquifer recharge zone

any area where water infiltrates earth's surface and reaches an aquifer below

artesian aquifer

when a water-bearing porous layer of rock,sand, or gravel is trapped between upper and lower layers of less permeable substances

littoral zone

the region of a lake where plants are able to attach to the bottom and still reach above the surface

what is the spatial relationship between the distributions of water and people?

populations and water resources too often have an inverse relationship

the most cost effective solution for groundwater depletion and land level subsidence allowing

no more water to be withdrawn from an aquifer that is naturally recharged

which of the following agricultural practices is the least useful for consuming water?

"flood and furrow" irrigation

what is the direct cause of death for the aquatic animals during eutrophication?

a loss of dissolved oxygen in the water


a freshwater wetland located in a forested area where the rooted plants are able to grow above the waters surface throughout the entire wetland


greatest use of freshwater worldwide

which wetland environment occurs for a short period of time each yr?

vernal ponds


are expensive and primarily found in rich desert nations

what type of irrigation method wastes as little as 10% of water applied to the plants?

drip irrigation

could potentially help reduce the amount of water used on crops

genetic modification


water that can be reused w/out purification for watering your yard and can help reduce overall water usage

which types of water pollution causes eutrophication

nutrient pollution

pathogen pollution

most responsible for large amounts of death worldwide because of unsafe drinking water


organic matter that is compressed under high pressure to form solid carbon structure

Hubberts Peak

a prediction, based on rates of extraction and new discovery of when a country's or global oil production will be at a maximum and then start to fall

carbon capture and carbon sequestrian is

used to trap carbon from coal burning power plants and prevent it from entering the atmosphere

how does the burning of coal contribute to acid rain?

burning coal releases sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides

what does the EROI tell us about the potential energy source

a high EROI ratio means an energy source is worth extracting based on the amount of energy needed to extract it

catalystic converters

which of the following technologies has helped us to reduce the amount of emissions released by vehicles


coal can be converted into a cleaner burning gas by combining it w/ oxygen and steam at a high temp through what process

directional drilling

one way the oil industry is decreasing the environmental impacts of drilling is


produced the least greenhouse gas emissions

nuclear fission energy

what conventional energy resources will eventually be exhausted, even if it is used carefully


process where fueled power plants produce electricity and heat that can be used by people

what does a moderator do in a nuclear fission reactor

slows down the neutrons so that they can react w/ the nucleus of a uranium atom


have the largest biomass in any given terrestrial economy

how does predation differ from parasitism?

parasites rarely kill their host while predators kill their prey

tropical rain forest

biome that has soil with the fewest nutrients and least organic matter

keystone species

a predator controls the herbivore populations, which in turn maintains the plant and keeps balance

temperate grassland

has a hot dry summer and fall, has few to no trees, and contains large grazing animals

desert, grassland, temperate deciduous forest, and tropical rainforest

which biomes have the lowest annual rainfall and which have the highest

surface strip mining and moutain-top removal

which type of mining creates the greatest environmental damage

diversifying oil imports

how has the u.s. dealt with the insecurity caused by foreign oil dependence


the us and other industrialized nations devote the greatest proportion of their oil to


example of renewable energy source


produced as a by product that occurs when bacteria decompose organic material under anaerobic conditions

fossil fuels, alternative energy sources

developed countries are more dependent on __________ than on __________


the use of ____________ power grew very quickly in the 1970s and 1980s but our use of it has dramatically decreased

biomass energy

which type of energy is most commonly used in the homes of those living in the poorest nations

wind power

energy source that is sometimes fatal to wildlife when it is formed or generated


which form of energy does not originate from radiation emitted by the sun


of the renewable energy resources which is growing the fastest

photovoltaic cells

what collect sunlight and convert it to electrical energy directly

geothermal and hydropower

what two energy sources provide the majority of hydrogen


which renewable energy source produces the most pollution in its production of electricity

photovoltaic solar

which energy source creates the most jobs per unit of energy produced

nuclear power

which energy has received the most research and development funding spent by the us gov't

wave energy

which renewable energy source is least developed and has the shortest period of experimentation and research


new renewable energy provides __% of our energy

wind and solar power

what type of energy is currently growing at the fastest rate

wind energy is the result of the sun producing wind

how is wind energy related to solar energy

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