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54 terms


aquifer recharge zone
any area where water infiltrates earth's surface and reaches an aquifer below
artesian aquifer
when a water-bearing porous layer of rock,sand, or gravel is trapped between upper and lower layers of less permeable substances
littoral zone
the region of a lake where plants are able to attach to the bottom and still reach above the surface
what is the spatial relationship between the distributions of water and people?
populations and water resources too often have an inverse relationship
the most cost effective solution for groundwater depletion and land level subsidence allowing
no more water to be withdrawn from an aquifer that is naturally recharged
which of the following agricultural practices is the least useful for consuming water?
"flood and furrow" irrigation
what is the direct cause of death for the aquatic animals during eutrophication?
a loss of dissolved oxygen in the water
a freshwater wetland located in a forested area where the rooted plants are able to grow above the waters surface throughout the entire wetland
greatest use of freshwater worldwide
which wetland environment occurs for a short period of time each yr?
vernal ponds
are expensive and primarily found in rich desert nations
what type of irrigation method wastes as little as 10% of water applied to the plants?
drip irrigation
could potentially help reduce the amount of water used on crops
genetic modification
water that can be reused w/out purification for watering your yard and can help reduce overall water usage
which types of water pollution causes eutrophication
nutrient pollution
pathogen pollution
most responsible for large amounts of death worldwide because of unsafe drinking water
organic matter that is compressed under high pressure to form solid carbon structure
Hubberts Peak
a prediction, based on rates of extraction and new discovery of when a country's or global oil production will be at a maximum and then start to fall
carbon capture and carbon sequestrian is
used to trap carbon from coal burning power plants and prevent it from entering the atmosphere
how does the burning of coal contribute to acid rain?
burning coal releases sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
what does the EROI tell us about the potential energy source
a high EROI ratio means an energy source is worth extracting based on the amount of energy needed to extract it
catalystic converters
which of the following technologies has helped us to reduce the amount of emissions released by vehicles
coal can be converted into a cleaner burning gas by combining it w/ oxygen and steam at a high temp through what process
directional drilling
one way the oil industry is decreasing the environmental impacts of drilling is
produced the least greenhouse gas emissions
nuclear fission energy
what conventional energy resources will eventually be exhausted, even if it is used carefully
process where fueled power plants produce electricity and heat that can be used by people
what does a moderator do in a nuclear fission reactor
slows down the neutrons so that they can react w/ the nucleus of a uranium atom
have the largest biomass in any given terrestrial economy
how does predation differ from parasitism?
parasites rarely kill their host while predators kill their prey
tropical rain forest
biome that has soil with the fewest nutrients and least organic matter
keystone species
a predator controls the herbivore populations, which in turn maintains the plant and keeps balance
temperate grassland
has a hot dry summer and fall, has few to no trees, and contains large grazing animals
desert, grassland, temperate deciduous forest, and tropical rainforest
which biomes have the lowest annual rainfall and which have the highest
surface strip mining and moutain-top removal
which type of mining creates the greatest environmental damage
diversifying oil imports
how has the u.s. dealt with the insecurity caused by foreign oil dependence
the us and other industrialized nations devote the greatest proportion of their oil to
example of renewable energy source
produced as a by product that occurs when bacteria decompose organic material under anaerobic conditions
fossil fuels, alternative energy sources
developed countries are more dependent on __________ than on __________
the use of ____________ power grew very quickly in the 1970s and 1980s but our use of it has dramatically decreased
biomass energy
which type of energy is most commonly used in the homes of those living in the poorest nations
wind power
energy source that is sometimes fatal to wildlife when it is formed or generated
which form of energy does not originate from radiation emitted by the sun
of the renewable energy resources which is growing the fastest
photovoltaic cells
what collect sunlight and convert it to electrical energy directly
geothermal and hydropower
what two energy sources provide the majority of hydrogen
which renewable energy source produces the most pollution in its production of electricity
photovoltaic solar
which energy source creates the most jobs per unit of energy produced
nuclear power
which energy has received the most research and development funding spent by the us gov't
wave energy
which renewable energy source is least developed and has the shortest period of experimentation and research
new renewable energy provides __% of our energy
wind and solar power
what type of energy is currently growing at the fastest rate
wind energy is the result of the sun producing wind
how is wind energy related to solar energy