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selective breeding

method of breeding that allows only those individual organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation


continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics to maintain the desired characteristics of a line of organisms


breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms

genetic engineering

process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms


process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria

genetic engineering

process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms

restriction enzymes

enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides

gel electrophoresis

procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel

recombinant DNA

DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources

polymerase chain reaction

technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene


a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication

genetic marker

gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don't


term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms


member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell


photograph of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs


chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

sex chromosomes

One of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual


chart that shows the relationships within a family


error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate

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