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19 terms

gentetic engineering and the human genome

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selective breeding
method of breeding that allows only those individual organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation
inbreeding
continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics to maintain the desired characteristics of a line of organisms
hybridization
breeding technique that involves crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best traits of both organisms
genetic engineering
process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms
transformation
process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria
genetic engineering
process of making changes in the DNA code of living organisms
restriction enzymes
enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides
gel electrophoresis
procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
recombinant DNA
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources
polymerase chain reaction
technique that allows molecular biologists to make many copies of a particular gene
plasmid
a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication
genetic marker
gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry a plasmid with foreign DNA from those that don't
transgenic
term used to refer to an organism that contains genes from other organisms
clone
member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell
Karyotype
photograph of chromosomes grouped in order in pairs
autosomes
chromosome that is not a sex chromosome
sex chromosomes
One of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
pedigree
chart that shows the relationships within a family
nondisjunction
error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate